Science https://free-minds.org/category/science en Blind Dating Versus Perfect Timing https://free-minds.org/node/208 <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Blind Dating Versus Perfect Timing</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2019-03-14T05:04:24+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 03/14/2019 - 12:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/study-time-calendar-750x410.jpg?itok=YSFFgVZz" width="300" height="164" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify">Every year, a common occurrence is a dispute between followers of various sects about when so-called Ramadan starts and ends. This year is no exception and some countries ended their so-called Ramadan one day before others.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the so-called Islamic calendar the start of Ramadan depends on the sighting of the new crescent moon. The sighting of the new crescent moon is not an easy task and only expert observers under optimal viewing conditions can see the new-moon crescent. Hence, the vast majority of people never sees the new-moon crescent and only sees the 1-2 day old crescent. This difficulty is a major reason for the annual dispute about the timing. What many people don't know is that the start of so-called Ramadan depends on a myriad of other factors other than the sighting of the new-moon crescent.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The current so-called Islamic calendar was established during the time of Caliph Omar, long after the death of the prophet and the revelation of the great reading. This is confirmed by archeological evidence from coins and manuscripts of the era. [Please see: Alan Jones, "The Dotting Of A Script And The Dating Of An Era: The Strange Neglect Of PERF 558", in Islamic Culture, 1998, Volume LXXII, No. 4, pp. 95-103.]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Interestingly, the word "hijri" doesn't appear on manuscripts until much later so we don't really know what this arbitrary dating of the new era was based on.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">One of the factors that affects when present-day so-called Ramadan starts depends on when the start of the so-called Islamic calendar was set. For example, had its start been set for three years earlier, then this year the dating of Ramadan would have been a month earlier. As I mentioned above, we know from verifiable archeological evidence that the new calendar was established around 638 AD, long after the prophet's time. Several generations later, a story circulated that Omar decided after consultation with others to make the year of the "hijra" the first date of the new era. So the timing of Ramadan today is dependent not only on the sighting of the new crescent moon but on an arbitrary decision that was made many centuries ago.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As a side note, traditionalists also contend that the prophet first started to abstain in the second year after migration/"hijra". So according to them this means that 2:185 was revealed early in Yathrib. The traditionalists contend that Chapter 9 (where they claim there is the alleged calendar modification order) was revealed in the last year of the prophet's life. By holding to this traditional view and backdating the so-called Islamic calendar to the alleged first year of "hijra" sectarians imply that all his life, the prophet abstained on the wrong dates (see Appendix).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another factor that the start of the present so-called Ramadan depends on is the order of the months at the time the new calendar system was adopted. In "pre-quranic" times, the Arabs didn't use a single standard calendar. Arabs used calendars based on 4, 5, and 6-season system. Some "pre-quranic" Arabs used the calendar system of the Persians. Others used the calendar system of the Jews and some used the calendar system of the Romans. The Nabataeans used to align the months with the zodiac and hence some Arabs used the star based calendar system. Even the 4 season system was different than the modern 4 season system that we have today. For example, according to Lisan Al-3arab "sayf" was spring, "qayth" was summer, "kharif" was autumn, and "shitaa" was winter. Rabi3 months etymology denotes grazing in spring and fall. In Arabia the rainy season, which would promote the growth of grasses for grazing, occurs during autumn. This is confirmed by what is known about Arabs using a 6 season system that split fall into Rabi3 Althani (early fall) and Kharif (late fall) prior to the so-called Islamic calendar. In this system each season lasted two months. The new Omar Calendar that we have today has a different order for the months. The arbitrary decision to rearrange the order of the months also affects when the present day so-called Ramadan occurs.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Hence, in addition to the sighting of the new crescent moon, we have two other completely arbitrary factors affecting when so-called Ramadan starts. Hence, for all intents and purposes, the current so-called Ramadan is completely arbitrary and it is no different than randomly picking a month for abstaining.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The problem of pinpointing an arbitrary month called Ramadan is the same type of problem that the Jews, Christians, and sectarians face in pinpointing their "holy" days in the arbitrary week. For example, sectarians claim that Friday, which they named Al-Jum3at (as opposed to the common noun "ywm al-jum3at"/time of gathering in the great reading), is a special "holy" day where, according to their traditions, Adam was created. What is hard for many people to understand is that the week is completely arbitrary. Hence, the fact is that the week has not always been seven days. Weeks from 4 to 20 days were observed. For example, the ancient Egyptians used a 10-day week while the Mayans used a 20-day week. The week was typically the interval from one market day to the next. Four to 20 days gave farmers and craftsmen enough time to gather and transport products to sell. Hence, when Friday occurs depends on when the present seven day week was arbitrarily adopted and which day it started with.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">There is nothing wrong or forbidden with an arbitrary timeframe in itself. The problem is to act as if The God somehow has to conform to the man-made arbitrary timeframes and to say to people that The God ordered you to fast in this or that completely arbitrary timeframe or take that arbitrary day as "holy". Another problem with such arbitrary timeframes is that errors made at the beginning of their adoption are propagated into the future and get larger and larger. This shouldn't be the case because we are not responsible for the errors of those who came before us. Hence, an effective method of specifying a timeframe shouldn't be one that allows such errors to propagate. It should be one that allows those who have faith at any point of time to obey The God's command correctly irrespective of what their predecessors decided to do or not to do. This is impossible with the current so-called Islamic calendar, which as we saw is influenced by decisions made centuries ago. Another problem is that, as we saw earlier, now and in the past people used different calendars, a universal command that is to be understood by everybody would best be based on clear cosmic phenomena and not on man-made calendars.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now that we presented the problem, let's look in the great reading for the solution.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>2:185. "shahr ramadhan" is when the reading was descended as a guidance for people and clarifications from the guidance and the criterion, so whomever witnesses "al-shahr", let him abstain it. And whomever was sick or traveling so a count of other days. The God wants to facilitate and not make it hard on you. And so complete the count and magnify The God for what He guided you and perhaps you would be thankful.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">A common misconception is that the word "shahr" means month. However, the term "shahr" doesn't mean month. According to Classical Arabic dictionaries, the Arabs used to call the moon "shahr". But what phase of the moon does the word "shahr" imply?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Classical Arabic Dictionaries deal extensively with the etymology of the word "shahr". For instance in the discussion of "shahr", it gives "ash-harat", a derivative of "shahr", as meaning a pregnant woman whose belly is round. It also gives the meaning of "shahira(t)" as a big wide woman. It also gives the meaning of "ash-har" as the bright white color of flowers. The primary meaning of the word "shahr" is "something obvious", "something public", "something wide", and "something bright". Hence, all the etymology of the Arabic word "shahr" indisputably and clearly points to it being the obvious, wide, round, and bright full-moon and not the thin, unobvious, and dim new crescent moon.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">There is no evidence that there was a "pre-quranic" month named Ramadhan. The common noun "ramadhan" means "scorching heat". The only derivative from "R-M-Dh" in the great reading is the word "ramadhan", which occurs only once. Hence, there is no way to compare directly the meaning with how it is used in other verses. However, one can indirectly verify the meaning. Verses such as 2:217 indicate that there was big fighting during "al-shahr al-7aram". We also know that the whole context of chapter 9 (or the second half of the very long chapter 8, since the "bism Allah" are the only separators) is about fighting the idolaters who broke their treaty. A sign in verse 9:81 indicates that the time of a particularly big fight that the hypocrites were fearful from was a hot time of the year. Shortly afterwards, 9:86 talks about a chapter descending at that time and from 2:185 we know that "shahr ramadhan" is when the great reading was descended so that provides an additional link between "shahr ramadhan" and "al-shahr al-7aram". Hence, circumstantial evidence from the great reading supports that "al-shahr al-7aram"/"shahr ramadhan" is a hot time of the year and confirms the dictionary's meaning. With this understanding, let's now complete the translation of 2:185 that we started above: 2:185. The full moon of scorching heat is when the reading was descended as a guidance for people and clarifications from the guidance and the criterion, so whomever witnesses the full-moon, let him abstain it. And whomever was sick or traveling so a count of other days. The God wants to facilitate and not make it hard on you. And so complete the count and magnify The God for what He guided you and perhaps you would be thankful. Now 2:185 contains the complete information that we need to know when to start the abstinence. It is the complete information irrespective of what calendar system each nation or group uses because it doesn't rely on any calendar system and instead relies on easily witnessed cosmic phenomena.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">When does scorching heat begin to take place? The time of scorching heat starts after the summer solstice. This is the time when the sun is at its highest point and hence the shadow is smallest. Verse 25:45 talks about the indicative relationship between the sun and the shadow. It is after the summer solstice that the weather starts to become hot.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Interestingly, the full-moon around the summer solstice is special because it follows a lower path across the sky compared to the rest of the year's full moons and for some reason our brains are wired to perceive such full-moons as larger than normal. In fact, not only will the full-moon seem bigger than normal, but the low-hanging full moon takes on an orange hue as a result of scattered moonlight in Earth's dusty atmosphere. For the same reason that warning lights are orange, this orange hue creates a strong visual response, preserves the observer's night vision, and allows him/her to better see the shape and details of the moon than the normal white moon light (while driving, we all experienced how looking into white headlights degrades those abilities). Hence, the full-moon after the summer solstice is easier to witness. Moreover, because this orange moon appears while the days are longest, at the time of its appearance it is still daylight and it is still hot outside. All these signs are certainly not coincidental.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now the next question to ask is about the year. Is the year in the great reading solar or lunar?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">10.5. It is He who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light and made it stages; so that you might know the number of years and the calculation. The God didn't create this except with the truth, He explains His signs to people who know.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">From 10:5, it can be seen that the learning of the number of years and calculation are helped by either or both the sun and the moon, however there is no mention of a specific stage of the moon. Another sign that makes it absolutely clear that the year is solar is in 17:12:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">17.12. We have made the night and the day as two signs: the sign of the night We have obscured, while the sign of the day we have made visible so that you may seek favors from your Lord, and so that you may know the number of years and the calculation, and We have explained all things in detail.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Given that night and day is certainly determined by the sun and not the moon, the sign in 17:12 leaves absolutely no doubt that the year is solar.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">More confirmation is in 12:47-49 that talk about the "year" definitely as a solar year because of reference to agricultural cycles and planning of crops that would have to be done according to seasons that don't change from one year to the next.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">A verse that is often mistranslated and hence confused is 2:189. Here is the mistranslation of Yusuf Ali:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">002.189 YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage. It is no virtue if ye enter your houses from the back: It is virtue if ye fear Allah. Enter houses through the proper doors: And fear Allah: That ye may prosper.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Please notice that Yusuf Ali and most other translators translate "ahila(t)" (the plural of "hilal") as new moons. On the other hand, the meaning given for "hilal" by Arabic lexicons such as Al-Mo7it, Al-Wasit, and Lisan Al-3arab is different. The lexicons say that the "hilal" is the moon in both its beginning and its end. Yet for some reason, most translators ignored this fact and instead claim that "hilal"/"ahila(t)" means only the new moon. Let's now replace new-moons with the correct translation:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:189. They ask you regarding the crescent moons, Say: "They are timings for the people as well as for the debate." And piety is not that you would enter a home from its back, but piety is whomever is righteous and come to the homes from their main doors. And be aware of the God that you may succeed.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">According to the corrected translation, crescent moons in general (both the thinning crescent and the widening crescent) can serve as timing devices. Another verse that talks about timing/"myqat" is 7:142 where Moussa is described as completing the "myqat"/timing. So "myqat"/"mawaqit" can signify timing/timings for completion of something.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">7:142. And We appointed for Moussa thirty nights, and We completed with ten: thus was completed the timing of his Lord, forty nights...</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We also hear about 10 nights in 89:2.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Interestingly, 10 nights is exactly how long it takes for the full-moon to reach the crescent stage. Note the relationship between the 10 extra nights in 7:142 and the 10 days of "7ajj"/debate in 2:196. We hear about 10 days in 2:196, three during the "7aj"/debate and seven when those whose family was not in the institution of hearing and obeying the restriction/"al-masjid al-haram" return. As for those whose family is in the institution of hearing and obeying the restriction, they would stay the whole 10 days. This makes sense because those whose family are not oriented to the truth from our Lord, should go back earlier to teach them based on what they heard. Hence, putting 2:189, 7:142, and 2:196 together, we can see that the "ahila(t)"/crescents provide timing for the completion of the "7ajj"/debate not its beginning. We also know from 2:189 that we should come into houses from the obvious front doors and not from the obscure backs. This hints to us that the "7ajj"/debate starts with the obvious full moon and that the unobvious crescent is what ends the "7ajj"/debate. This way it lasts for 10 total days, which is the exact period from full-moon to crescent:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon="">&lt;---10 days--&gt;&lt;-- thinning crescent 4-5 days--&gt;&lt;-- widening crescent 4-5 days--&gt;&lt;---10 days--&gt;<full moon=""></full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">This is how the crescents provide timing for the "7aj"/debate. Moreover, the "7aj"/debate is a known counted days at the restriction "ash-hur"/full moons. They are the 10 days between the full moon and the crescent moon. The first full-moon of the restricted full-moons (the full moon of scorching heat/"ramadhan") is for abstinence while the remaining three full moons are for the debate. This gives people three opportunities per year to meet up for the "7ajj"/debate." </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Verse 2:184 talks about abstaining for a few/"ma3doodat" days and 2:185 talks about completing the count/"al-3ida(t)". The word "ma3doodat" typically means "few" and indicates a number from 3-10 as the term is used for numbers which can be simply counted even by the fingers of the hands. As we saw already, 2:196 indicates that the full time of "7ajj"/debate is 10 days for those whose family are in the institution of hearing and obeying the restriction and three days for those whose family is not (could be shortened to two according to 2:203). Notice that the complete count is said to be a "complete 10" in 2:196. Also, 7:142 talks about completing the thirty nights with 10 to make it 40 nights. Similarly, 28:27 talks about completing the count by reaching 10. Thus, in 2:185 the complete count is 10 days, which again is the exact period from full-moon to crescent. Hence, the crescent once again serves as a timing device, in this case to time the abstinence. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">This would be a good time to find out how the restricted full-moons fit in all this. First, let's see the traditional view. The reason for the so-called Islamic calendar is always given as verse 9:37: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">9:37. But the "nasi'a" is an increase in rejection, whereby those who have rejected are misguide with it. They make it permitted one year, and they restrict it one year, to circumvent the count that The God has made restricted; thus they make lawful what The God made restricted! Their evil works have been adorned for them, and The God does not guide the rejecting people. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The whole lunar calendar was adopted to avoid the "nasi'a". Interestingly, despite this there is no consensus about what the word "nasi'a" means. Some people claim that it is the addition of an intercalary month. Others claim that it is the haphazard assignment of the restricted "ash-hur" at the beginning of each year. All the classical Arabic dictionaries say that "nasi'a" means "delay" and that the Arabs used to delay the start of the restricted "ash-hur" by making the month of Safar restricted instead of Mu7aram. Given the etymology of the word that points to "delay" then most probably the dictionaries are the most correct and their meaning has nothing to do with changing the calendar to lunar, since the arbitrary assignment of a restricted "shahr" can be delayed in a lunar calendar just as easily as in a solar one. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Another verse that is used to justify a fully lunar calendar is 9:36. Here is a translation of 9:36 that is based on our findings: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">9:36. The count of the full-moons with The God is twelve full-moons in The God's book the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are restricted. This is the correct obligation; so do not wrong yourselves in them; and fight those who set-up partners collectively as they fight you collectively and know that The God is with the forethoughtful. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The Georgian solar calendar has some arbitrary periods with 31 days and others with 30 and 28/29 days to make them 12. The so-called Islamic calendar actually has 12.3 months every year and not 12. Now, people will say that in some years the number of full-moons is actually 13. However, we are not concerned about the number ("3adad") of full-moons in a year. We are concerned about the count ("3idat") of full-moons in a year. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">To illustrate the difference between "3adad" and "3idat", let me use an example. In so-called Islamic countries the laws for divorce state that there is a 3 months waiting period before a divorce becomes final. Hence, a couple who divorced on September 7th would have their divorced finalized on December 7th, if using the Georgian calendar. Or applying the same principle in the so-called Islamic calendar, a couple who divorces on the 12th of Mu7aram would have their divorce finalized on the 12th of Rabi3 Al-Thani. Hence, the number of months is 3 and the waiting period in both cases is approximately 90 days. As we will see, this is different than the count "3idat". </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Verse 2:228 provides interesting clues into how the count is different than the absolute number. It shows us how waiting periods and "shahr" are measured. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">It can be seen from 2:226-228 that in case the couple decides to divorce after the initial 4 "ash-hur" waiting period in 2:226, then 2:228 prescribes an additional waiting period of 3 menstruations. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">What is interesting here is that assuming that the average is 28 days for a menstrual cycle and it lasts for a week, counting 3 menstruations could be between 56+7=61 days (if the lady happens to have her menstruation right after the divorce) and 82 days (if the lady happens to finish her menstruation right before the divorce). This is certainly different than the 90 days we found earlier by waiting for 3 months. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">In 2:226, assuming a cycle of full moon to full moon is 30 days, then waiting for 4 "full moons" could range from 90 days (if a full moon occurs right after the couple is estranged) to 119 days (if a full moon occurred right before the couple is estranged). This is again different than the 120 days of the absolute 4 months. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Another interesting observation is that 2:234 talks about 4 "ash-hur" plus 10 (days?/nights?) for the woman whose husband died. What are the 10 days/nights after the full moon? As we saw earlier, it is the time it takes for the full-moon to reach the crescent stage again. So here we have the crescent used as a timing device for the purpose of counting the waiting period. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">There is a sign in this that can help us to correctly understand 9:36. If The God was telling us about the number (i.e., an absolute number), then given that a few billion years passed since He created the moon and the earth, the absolute number of full-moons would not be twelve but would be in the billions. Hence, what is meant here is not an absolute number but how to count the full moons in a year. What The God is telling us is that we should always count 12 full moons in a year, out of which, we should count four as restricted. We start with the marker given to us. So in a solar year starting from the summer solstice, the first full-moon to count would be the one after the summer solstice and that is the full-moon of "ramadhan"/scorching heat. So what happens in the occasional years where we have 13 full-moons from one summer solstice to the next? The answer is that we simply do not count the 13th moon. This would automatically readjust the count and the full-moon of "ramadhan" would always be the first moon after the summer solstice. It is a very clear and surprisingly simple mechanism. All it requires is that we put our faith in The God and count only 12 full-moons in a year despite that we occasionally see 13. Only in this system from the great reading do we count EXACTLY 12 full moons EVERY SINGLE year and it is in-sync with the seasons. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">So now that we have this puzzle finally solved, let's turn our attention back to the restricted full-moons. We already determined that the first full-moon after the summer solstice (the full-moon of "ramadhan") is the first restricted full-moon. Hence, counting four full-moons beginning with the first full-moon after the summer solstice would give us the restricted four full-moons and as usual, the crescent times the end of the period (a period of about 90+10 ≈ 100 days). The solstice happens towards the later part of June (June 22 or so). The full-moon of scorching heat would be 0-30 days after that. Thus, the start of the restricted full-moons would be on average around the beginning of the second week of July and would end around the third week in October (this is average but it could be sooner or as late as end of October depending on when the full-moon occurred after the summer solstice). So the restriction full-moons cover the time from about mid summer to mid fall. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The timing of the restriction is significant, especially given that the restriction is on hunting wild-life. Interestingly, the restriction doesn't cover domesticated livestock animals (see 5:1). Why is that? The answer may be because summer is the time when most wild animals and even wild birds give birth. By killing a wild female animal, you are not only killing it but you would also be inadvertently killing all its new-born off-spring who cannot feed and fend for themselves. Also, finding the new-born animals gives the hunter an unfair advantage because the mother is sometimes reluctant to leave them or the hunter can just wait close by until the mother comes back for them and easily bring her down. On the other hand, when a mother of a domesticated livestock animal is killed, her new-born can be easily cared for by people and they will survive fine. Of course, our analysis indicates that the restriction period would be different between the southern and the northern hemisphere. This is fine. There is nothing in the great reading that indicates that they should be the same for people all over the world. We should orient our direction to the truth from our Lord wherever we are, whether in the Southern or Northern hemisphere (see 2:149). </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The timing of the restriction is also significant in light of Chapter 106, which totally negates that the present so-called Islamic calendar can be used to determine the period of restriction. The 5 and 6 season systems that the Arabs used divided what we know today as "summer" into "sayf" (Around April 22 – June 22) and "qayth" (Around June 22 – August 22). Hence, "ramadhan" occured in "qayth" not "sayf". In a purely lunar calendar, the alleged restricted months change and would eventually fall in "shitaa" or in "sayf". However, because according to Chapter 106 Quraysh traveled during those times, those cannot be the times of the restricted full-moons of "7ajj"/debate. Given that "7ajj" is a gathering like the annual fair where people gather their products to sell, it makes perfect sense that Quraysh would travel in "sayf" before the start of the restricted full-moons in "qayth" to buy goods to sell at the "7ajj"/debate. After the end of the restricted full-moons, it would also make sense that they use the money they earned during trading and travel to buy goods. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">In conclusion, we can see that The God gave us a clear marker for the restriction month. This clear marker is independent from any man-made calendar system and instead relies on easily witnessed cosmic phenomena. The orange full-moon after the summer solstice that appears clearer and larger to the observer and is directly in the line of sight can be witnessed by almost everybody so that even primitive societies with no means to calculate the moon cycles ahead of time can witness it. 2:185 doesn't say "whoever was told by someone, who was told by a Mullah about "al-shahr"", it says "whoever witnessed "al-shahr"". This is the simplest and most straightforward method that would generate the least discrepancies no matter how primitive or advanced a society is and no matter what man-made calendar system they use. Moreover, this marker is unaffected by the arbitrary decisions of people who came before us and we don't have to implicitly blindly accept those decisions. Hence, those who have faith can always now and in the future make a fresh start and reset the system to the true marker. So clearly this is a robust timing solution that is not affected by any errors propagated from those who came before us. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">After completing this article, exactly when the night of measure ("laylat al-qadr") occurs was inadvertently found. Simply, according to 2:185 the great reading was sent down in the night of the full-moon of scorching heat, which is also the night of measure: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">97:1. We have sent it down in the night of measure. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Interestingly, 36:39 talks about the moon being measured by The God ("qadarnahu"): </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">36:39. And the moon We have measured ("qadarnahu") it to appear in stages, until it returns like an old curved sheath. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The night of "al-qadr"/the measure refers to the night of the full moon where the transformation of the moon starts and is measured ("qadarnahu") through stages ("manazila") until it returns into a crescent like an old curved sheath (see also 6:96). Hence, the night of the measure is the night of the abstinence (i.e., the night before the abstinence when the full-moon of scorching heat is observed). Another interesting connection is in 2:187, which talks about the night of the abstinence ("laylat al-siyam") in which we may approach our wives and eat and drink until the white thread is distinct from the black thread of dawn and then complete the abstinence until the night (i.e., until sunset since night starts being merged into day at sunset - for example see 22:61). We already established that abstinence is then for ten days. In Chapter 89 we also hear about the dawn and then 10 nights: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">89:1-3. By the dawn and ten nights and the even and the odd. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Interestingly, The God said that the night of measure is peaceful until the rising of dawn. Moreover, 89:3 talks about "the even and the odd". This could perhaps be an indication of the fact that 2 nights (even) correspond to 1 day (odd), and 3 nights (odd) correspond to 2 days (even), etc. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Thus: 1 night of measure/night of the abstinence/night of the full moon of scorching heat + 10 nights = 11 (odd) nights = 10 (even) days of abstinence </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Let's continue reading in Chapter 97: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">97:2. And do you know what the night of measure is? </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">97:3. The night of measure is better than one thousand full-moons. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">97:4. The controllers and the spirit come down in it by their Lord’s leave in every matter. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">97:5. It is peaceful until the rising of dawn. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Why is the night of measure better than a thousand "shahr"/full moons? </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Perhaps one of the reasons is because there are two lights during the night of measure: 1) the light brought by the great reading being sent down (5:15, 4:174, 7:157, 42:52, 33:46) and 2) the light of the full moon (10:5, 25:61). Indeed, one of the lessons to be learned from the great reading is that a night of enlightenment is better than a life-time of ignorance. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Although we answered several questions, as usual many questions remain. For example, what is the difference, if any, between "3am" and "sana(t)"? Both are equally translated as "year" but this seems unlikely because of 29:14 where both are used. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon=""><strong>IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER: </strong></full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">2:2. This is the book no doubt in it, a guidance for the forethoughtful. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">This article reflects my personal interpretation of the verses of the reading as of November 14, 2004. I will try to improve my understanding of the great reading and the universe, except if The God wills and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality. Please verify all information within for yourself as commanded in 17:36, and remember that simply "none" is the forethoughtful answer to 45:6. If The God willed, the outcome of this article will be beneficial. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon=""><strong>APPENDIX</strong> </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">According to unverifiable hearsay stories, it is alleged that Abu Musa Asha'ari, the Governor of Basra wrote the following to Caliph Omar: </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">"Amir-ul-Mominin, we receive instructions from you every now and then, but as the letters are undated, and some times the contents of the letters differ, it becomes difficult to ascertain as to which instructions are to be followed." </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The unverifiable hearsay tale of the establishment of the new calendar then goes something like this: That set Omar thinking. In the meantime, he received from Yemen a draft for some money which was encashable in Shaban. Omar thought that the practice of merely mentioning the month in such cases was defective for one could not be sure whether the month referred to was of the current or the following year. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">Omar convened an assembly to consider the question of calendar reform. Some one suggested that the Roman calendar should be adopted. After discussion the proposal was rejected as the Roman calendar dated from too remote an era and was cumbersome. It was next considered whether the Persian calendar might be adopted. Hormuzan explained the salient features of the Persian calendar called 'Mahroz'. The consensus of opinion was that such a calendar would not be suitable for the Muslims. </full></full></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><full moon=""><full moon="">The general opinion was that instead of adopting any alien calendar, the Muslims should have a calendar of their own. This was agreed to, and the point next considered was from when should such an era begin? Some one suggested that the era should begin from the date of birth of the Holy Prophet. Some suggested that it should begin from the death of the Holy Prophet. Ali suggested that it should begin from the date the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Madina. After discussion, Ali's suggestion was agreed to. The Holy Prophet had migrated in the month of Rabi-ulAwwal, when the year had already run two months and eight days. Next the question arose from which month should the new era start. Some one suggested that the calendar should start with the month of Rajab as in the pre-Islamic period this month was held sacred. Some one proposed that the first month should be Ramzan as that is a sacred month for the Muslims. Another proposal was that the first month should be 'Zul Hajj' as that is the month of the pilgrimage. Usman suggested that as in Arabia the year started with Muharram the new era should also start with Muharram. This suggestion was accepted. The date was accordingly pushed back by two months and eight days, and the new Hijri calendar began with the first day of Muharram in the year of migration rather than from the actual date of migration. </full></full></p> <hr /><p class="text-align-justify">By Ayman (e-mail: drayman(AT)fast-email.com)</p> </div> Thu, 14 Mar 2019 05:04:24 +0000 admin 208 at https://free-minds.org Koran and Self-Reference https://free-minds.org/koran-and-self-reference <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Koran and Self-Reference</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-17T09:13:22+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 09/17/2011 - 17:13</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/symmetry.jpg?itok=ZHiO1ma7" width="259" height="194" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>There was a fundamental crisis in mathematics about a hundred years ago, a basic disturbance that affected all of logic till it was repaired. Logicians realized that for centuries they had left out the concept of "Self-reference." For centuries, Aristotles rule of the "Excluded middle" had been used. This rule is a proposition that states, "Every proposition is either true or false." Somebody was smart enough to question that very proposition. What if that proposition that states that every proposition is either true or false is false? People had overlooked that for centuries. Not so the Koran. If the Koran is what it claims to be then it should be aware of self-reference, as applied to its own statements.</p> <!--break--><p>Paul Davies, professor or Mathematical Physics at the University of Adelaide in Australia, in his book, The Mind of God (1992), talks about how Self-reference shook the very foundations of logic and how it was resolved (emphasis is mine):</p> <p>In spite of its superficial plausibility, the formalist interpretation of mathematics received a severe blow in 1931. In that year the Austrian mathematician and logician Kurt Godel proved a sweeping theorem to the effect that mathematical statements existed for which no systematic procedure could determine whether they are either true or false. The fact that there exist undecidable propositions in mathematics came as a great shock, because it seemed to undermine the entire logical foundations of the subject.</p> <p>Godels theorem springs from a constellation of paradoxes that surround the subject of self-referenceThe great mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell demonstrated that the existence of such paradoxes strikes at the very heart of logic, and undermines any straightforward attempt to construct mathematics rigorously on a logical foundation. Godel went on to adapt these difficulties of self-reference to the subject of mathematics in a brilliant and unusual manner. He considered the relationship between the description of mathematics and the mathematics itselfIn this way, logical operations about mathematics can be made to correspond to the mathematical operations themselves. And this is the essence of the self-referential character of Godels proof. By identifying the subject with the object- mapping the description of the mathematics unto the mathematics- he uncovered a Russellian paradoxical loop that led directly to the inevitability of undecidable propositions. (Davies 1993:100-101).</p> <!--break--><hr size="1" style="width: 100px" /><p class="rtecenter"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/einstein.jpg" style="width: 150px; height: 248px" /></p> <p class="rtecenter">Godel and Einstein</p> <p>"I like Islam, it is a consistent idea of religion and open-minded"<br /> (Kurt Godel as quoted by Hoo Wang in "A Logical Journey: From Godel to Philosophy", Hao Wang. The MIT Press. 1996. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts)</p> <p>Self-reference takes into consideration the "use" and the "mention" of words. When you "use" a word, it is the meaning of the word that is implied. When you "mention" a word, you are talking about the word and not its meaning. Every sentence can thus talk about the words it is using or the meaning of the word. As an example: If I say, " Youth comes before manhood," it would be logically incorrect unless specified. The reason being that in the dictionary, "Manhood (the word and not its meaning)," comes before "Youth (the word)." Since the Koran talks about numerous things and uses many words sometimes repeating them many times, if the author of the Koran was a man or group of men we should find many opportunities to find such logical errors of self reference in the book. However we find something amazing when we apply the self-reference check.</p> <p>If I said, "There is a mistake in the Bible,"to a crowd of pastors, there would be a great uproar and people would respond with emotion, "No there is no mistake in the Bible. Show us a mistake." I could logically show a mistake in the book by reading a passage like, "David made a mistake" See, the word "mistake" is in the Bible. Now if the Bible were to say, "There is NO mistake in this book," it would be falsified and disproved logically, by that example. This is no trick; it involves delicate matters of logic. However, safely for now [not so otherwise] the Bible never makes such a claim, but the Koran does!</p> <p>"Do they not consider the Koran with care. If it had been from anyone other than God, it would contain many (Kathirun) contradictions (Ikhtelaafun-)." Koran 4:82</p> <p>The meaning of the statement (use of words) is clear. Considering the nature of the Book and its diverse topics and areas of discussion, if the Book had a human origin, it should be easy to find discrepancies in it. If we consider the "mention" of the words a different picture emerges. Let us see if the Koran passes its own falsification test on the criteria of "self reference" using the "mention" of words.</p> <p>In the "mention" of the word contradictions (Ikhteelafun), the meaning that emerges is; if the book had a human origin it should contain many (Kathirun), Ikhteelafun (contradictions, the word). Many denotes more than one. To check how many times the word "Ikhteelafun (contradictions)" occurs in the Koran, we make use of the index of every Arabic word in the Koran. Due to the work of Faud Abd al Baqi, we possess such an index of the Koran today, titled, Al- Moojam al Mofahris.</p> <p>Indeed the author of the Koran is aware of self-reference and the Koran passes the test of the "mention" of words as the word "Ikhteelafun (contradictions)," is just mentioned ONCE in the whole Koran in this particular verse. Not many (Kathirun) times, but only once.</p> <p>Some people band together the last two words of this verse: Many (Kathirun) Contradictions (Ikhteelafun). Then they say see the Koran mentions the words Ikhteelafun Kathirun (Many Contradictions) and the verse says that if it came from other than God it would contain Ikhteelfun Kathirun (Many contradictions). This is a very smart move in trying to prove the Koran false but its not smart enough.</p> <p>People who try to disprove the Koran by taking the last two words in conjunction are implying, in the mention of words, that if the Koran contains the words "Ikhteelafun Kathirun (many contradictions)," it came from other than God. The statement in the Koran is not saying that. It is saying that books from other than God can contain the words "Ikhteelafun Kathirun," but so also can a book from God. Thus they fall into the famous Fallacy of the Converse in logic. Rain means wet streets but wet streets do not necessarily mean rain. Similarly, the Koran did not say, "If it contains Ikhtelafun Kathirun (many contradictions) it came from other than God." It does not say that.It is because the qualifier for the verse, "Kathirun", i.e. "many" is taken out</p> <p><b>Jesus is like Adam:</b></p> <p>The example of Jesus with God is like that of Adam. He created him from dust and said to him, "Be," and he was (Koran 3:59)</p> <p>The meaning of the statement is clear. Jesus being born without a father is like Adams creation. The new "mitochondrial eve" theory of humankinds descent gives even more credence to this comparison as it was a woman from whom the human race descended and Jesus had a mother only, as well.</p> <p>However, in the mention of words, it says that the word "Jesus (Eesa)," in the Koran is like the word "Adam." It is surprising to note that indeed the word "Jesus (Eesa) [page 494 of the Index]" in its mention in the Koran is like the mention of the word "Adam [page 24 of the index]," Both words occur in the Koran twenty five times. Not only that, it is in the same order of succession. The verse that mentions that they are like each other is the seventh time the word "Jesus" is mentioned and the seventh time "Adam" is mentioned.</p> <p><b>The example of a "Dog":</b></p> <p>"The example of him [who forsook our signs] is as the example of the dog. If you attack him he pants with his tongue out and if you leave him alone he does the same. Such is the example of THE NATION WHICH DENIES OUR REVELATIONS (7:176)."</p> <p>The Arabic word used for dog is "Kalb(singular)". The word for "dog" in the singular occurs in the Koran five times. The statement, "Nation which denies our revelations," occurs five times in the Koran also. Chapter 7:176 is the first time the word "dog (singular)" is mentioned in the Koran (see page 614 of the above mentioned index), and the first time the statement,, "The nation which denies our revelations (page 583-584 of the index)," is mentioned. Therefore the example of the "The nation which denies our revelations" is as the example of a dog (Kalb), in the mention or words.</p> <p><b>Not alike:</b></p> <p>"The blind (al-Aama) and the seeing (al-Baseer) are NOT alike. Nor are the depths of darkness (az-Zulumaat) and the light (an-Nur). Nor is the shadow (az-Zill) as the heat (al-Haroor) </p> <p>(Koran 35:19-22)</p> <p>[Note: Please make sure while checking the count in the index that you take note of the word "the". For example, "the light (an-nur)," is different from just "light (nur)." Therefore attention needs to be paid, while counting, to the "specific" or the "general" usage of the word.]</p> <p>The word "the blind (al-aama)" occurs in the Koran eight times (page 488 of the index). The word used for "the seeing" above, (al-baseer), occurs nine times (page 121-122 of the index). Therefore "the blind" and "the seeing" are not alike. The statement of the Koran above which mentions that "the blind" and "the seeing" are not alike is the fifth time in succession that the word "the seeing" is used in the Koran and also the fifth time in succession that the word "the blind" is used. </p> <p>The word used for "the depths of darkness," (az-Zulumat) occurs twelve (see page 438-439 of the index) times in the Koran; the word for "the light," (an-Nur), occurs thirteen times (see page 725 of the index). Thus "the depths of darkness (az-Zulumat)," are not the same as "the light (an-Nur)." The other trend that we noticed above, shows up in these words too. The statement above which mentions that "the light" is not as "the depths of darkness," is the tenth time both words are used in the Koran, if we take into consideration the use of the words in successive progression in the book. Another amazing thing that we notice is that the same statement is repeated in chapter 13: 16, and the same trend emerges [which makes it impossible to be coincidence]:</p> <p>"Say: Are the blind and the seeing equal, or are the depths of darkness equal to the light" (Koran 13:16)</p> <p>If we check the succession, it is the sixth time that the word "the depths of darkness (az-Zulumat)," is used and the sixth time the word "the light (an-Nur)," is used in the Koran. We can do the same with the first part that we already covered above." The blind (al-Aama)" are not as "the seeing (al-baseer)". In the verse above, chapter 13, it is the third time the word, "the blind (al-aama)" is used and the third time the word "the seeing (al-baseer),"is used [in the verse which says one is not like the other] in the Koran. In chapter 35 above we saw that it was the fifth time that both words were used in the Koran. Another trend is emerging from the above also: Whenever the Koran says that something is not like the other, the positive mentioned (for example "the seeing" (+) as opposed to "the blind" (-) and "the light" (+) as opposed to the "depths of darkness" (-)) are always one more than the negative. As we saw above, "the seeing (al-baseer)," is mentioned nine times as opposed to the eight of "the blind (al-aama)." Similarly, "the light (an-Nur)" is mentioned thirteen times as opposed to the twelve times that "the depths of darkness (az-zulumat)," is mentioned. The above examples should be enough to confirm this amazing trend in the Koran but let us try one more. The statement above in chapter 35 continues:</p> <p>"nor is the shadow (az-Zill) as the heat (al-Har or al-Haroor) (Koran 35:22)"</p> <p>The word used for "the shadow (az-Zill)," is mentioned in the Koran four times (see page 434 of the index) and the word "the heat (al-Har)," is mentioned three times. The statement (35:22) which mentions that "the shadow" is not as "the heat," is the third time both words "az-Zill" and "al-har" are used in the Koran.</p> <p><b>Did the Koran fail ?</b></p> <p>"Say: The evil (al-Khabees) and the good (at-Tayyab) are not alike(Koran 5:100)"</p> <p>When we come to this particular statement in the Koran on dissimilarity, the items mentioned occur an equal number of times. The word "evil (al-Khabees)," is mentioned seven times (see page 226 of the index) and the word, "the good (at-Tayyab)," seven times also (see page 432). Did the Koran fail? According to our trend above, the negative (the evil) should be one less than the positive (the good). How come "the evil" is one more than what it should be?</p> <p>The Koran fails only if we cut off the statement in the middle of the sentence. The verse continues:</p> <p>"Say: The evil and the good are not alike; EVENTHOUGH the plenty of the evil amazes you. So be careful of your duty to God, O people that understand, so that you may SUCEED (Koran 5:100)"</p> <p>If we are careful, just like the above statement mentions, we notice that God joins together all the evil (al-Khabees)" in the use of words, i.e. all different forms of the word and not only "the evil (al-Khabees), in order to differentiate between evil and good. Thus "evil (al-Khabees)" is separated from "good (at-Tayyab)." </p> <p>"That God may separate the evil from the good and place the evil (Khabees) one upon the other also heap them ALL TOGETHER(Koran 8:37)"</p> <p>Now acting on the advice of the above verse in the "mention" of words, if we "heap together" all the "evil (Khabees)," in its different forms of use in the Koran, and the many root forms, we end up with sixteen times that the word "evil" is mentioned as against seven that the word "good" is mentioned. Thus the good and the evil are not alike if we "heap them together," even though the plenty (sixteen as against seven) of the "evil" amazes us. </p> <p>This itself says volumes for the inimitability of the Koran. How could a man or group of men have produced such a mathematically/logically sound book without having any formal education in logic or mathematics and without access to any computer software or indexes?</p> <p><b>Month and Days:</b></p> <p>In the above-mentioned index of the Koran, if we look at the times the word month (Shahr) is mentioned, it turns out to be twelve. There are twelve "months" in the Koran. The number of times the word "day" in the singular (Yaum or Yauma) is mentioned turns out to be three hundred and sixty five.</p> <p>This discovery in the Koran proves as mentioned above that the Koran cannot be the work of a man or group of men living in the Arabian Desert over fourteen hundred years back. This also serves to provide evidence that the Koran hasnt been tampered with. The statements that mention, "this is like that," for example is the same in succession in the "mention" of words. The verse that says that "Jesus is like Adam," for example are the seventh time both Jesus is mentioned and the seventh time Adam is mentioned. If there were any tampering, in the setting of the chapters or the numbering of the verses or additions or deletions, this sequence would break down.</p> <p>Indeed, We have created everything with a measure (Koran 54:49)</p> <p>With God, everything is measured (Koran 13:8)</p> <p>----------------- </p> <p>Acknowledgements &amp; Bibliography:</p> <p>1.This discovery is based on the lecture, "The Amazing Quran." . The accuracy of the "mention of words," in the index Al Moojam ul Mofahris was checked many times over by myself. Page numbers are provided for anyone who would like to verify.</p> <p>2. Asadi, Muhammed. 1992. Koran: A Scientific Analysis. Lahore, Pakistan.</p> <p>3. Davies, Paul. 1993. The Mind of God. New York. Touchstone Books.</p> <p>Note:</p> <p>The Bible is not free from paradoxes (contradictions) of self-reference. The famous "Epimenides paradox" is well known. Paul, writing to Titus, says about the Cretans:</p> <p>12. One of themselves, even a prophet of their own said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. 13. This witness is true.</p> <p>(Titus 1:12-13- The Bible)</p> <p>An analysis based on self-reference tells us that if the statement that Cretans are always liars is true, then since "one of themselves (a Cretan)" said this, it must be a lie, since Cretans always lie (according to the statement made). So if the statement is true then it is a lie (based on self-reference). Only if the statement that "Cretans are always liars" is false can this "witness" be true. So it is a paradox, a contradiction that cannot be resolved. This shows that the author of Titus had no idea what he/she was talking about.</p> <p>-----------------</p> <p><b>By Muhhamed Asadi (muhammedasadi(at)gmail.com)</b></p> <p>-----------------</p> <p>N.B. Some inaccuracies in the counts contained in this article have been highlighted: <a href="http://free-minds.org/forum/index.php?topic=9600321.0">http://free-minds.org/forum/index.php?topic=9600321.0</a> </p> </div> Sat, 17 Sep 2011 09:13:22 +0000 admin 164 at https://free-minds.org Far in the Horizon https://free-minds.org/far-horizon <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Far in the Horizon</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-07T17:45:36+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 09/08/2011 - 01:45</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/horizon.jpg?itok=7jm1c9OP" width="204" height="127" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify">The interpretation of the first verse of Al-Isra’a chapter reads:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“Most glorified is the One who summoned His servant during the night, from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose surroundings we have blessed, in order to let him see some of our signs. He is the Hearer, the Seer.” [17:1]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">What are the signs that the Prophet saw?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As Muslims, only a sincere examination of the Quran offers any real opportunity to envision the signs that the Prophet saw during his summoning. As always, let us start by finding the other places in the Quran that talk about those particular signs.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><!--break--></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the Star chapter we read verse 18 which is interpreted as follows:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“He saw great signs of his Lord.” [53:18]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another verse in the Quran that talks about the signs that the Prophet saw is in Chapter 81:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“Surely, he saw (what he saw) at the clear horizon.” [81:23]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">We can gain more insight into the signs that the Prophet saw by reading the interpretation of Chapter 53 from the beginning. At first glance, it seems that all we learn are some of the properties of the location where the Prophet saw the great signs but not the signs themselves. The signs he saw were at the “highest horizon” and the “tree where everything ends”. Can the location provide hints about what the signs might be?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Remarkably, both chapters 53 and 81 share a common feature. In both chapters, God swears by some very special stars:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>By the star if it collapses. [53:1]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>But nay! I swear by the invisible stars. [81:15]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Interpretations of 81:15 explained the verse as talking about the planets perhaps because early Muslims thought that they were unusual stars that disappear and reappear again. A word from the same root, “khanas”, can be found in only one other place in the Quran. Chapter 114 describes satan as being invisible. This is confirmed by what we know from other descriptions of satan in 7:27.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“…for he (satan) and his clan see you from where you don’t see them” (7:27)</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Clearly satan is invisible as opposed to disappearing then reappearing again.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This leads us to the correct interpretation of 81:15:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>But nay! I swear by the invisible stars. [81:15]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Given the current knowledge that God bestowed on us, those two verses accurately describe one of the most bizarre astrophysical concepts in the universe, a black hole. The first verse of Chapter 53 gives a brief but surprisingly accurate depiction of the process that forms a black hole, essentially a collapsed star. Verse 81:15 emphasizes that what is described is indeed a black hole. No type of star except for a black hole can be invisible. A black hole is invisible because not even light can escape its strong gravitational pull. By reading the next verse in chapter 81, we get an even more vivid picture of a black hole, as if we are looking at it through a powerful telescope.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>Runabouts swept out of sight. [81:16]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">ABOVE: Gravity draws gas from a companion star onto a black hole in a swirling pattern. As the gas nears the event horizon, a strong gravitational red shift makes it appear redder and dimmer. When the gas finally crosses the event horizon, it disappears from view; the region within the event horizon appears black (Source: NASA Science News)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">NASA's two most powerful Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, have independently provided what could be the best direct evidence yet for the existence of an event horizon, the defining feature of a black hole. No object except for a black hole can have an event horizon, so evidence for its existence offers resounding proof of black holes in space. The word “horizon” used in the Quran to describe the location where the Prophet saw the signs is the same exact word used by scientists today to describe the area around the black hole.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Unfortunately, there is currently no way to know what is inside the event horizon of a black hole. As observers, the time dilation effect, as well as the gravitational shifting of light, keep us from being able to even watch an object break through the event horizon. If a volunteer astronaut was sent down, it would be a one-way trip, with no means to report back what he or she saw. Vision might be tricked as images of faraway objects are distorted in strange ways, since the black hole's gravity bends the incoming light. Interestingly, the Quran negates that what the Prophet saw might be due to the eyes being tricked:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“The eyes did not waver, nor were they in the wrong.” [53:17]</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Even more amazing is the fact that inside the black hole classical theories of physics fail to model or measure what happens. A new theory that scientists are finding very promising as a potential unifying theory is called String theory.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">One of the essential features of string theory is that it only constitutes a consistent theory when its tiny strings are vibrating in a 10-dimensional space-time. For decades, physicists have been struggling to understand nature at the extremely small scales. The length of a string is of the order of the Plank-length or 10^-35 meter. Indeed, to describe what is a very small distance by any measure, there wouldn’t be a more eloquent or truer statement than the one presented by God in 53:9.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“And was at a distance of but two strings or nearer.” [53:9] </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">ABOVE: Diverse modes of vibration can be induced in any string. Quantum mechanics allows the waves to be interpreted as particles. H loops of string about 10^-35 meter long are fundamental constituents of matter, then their vibrational energies are the masses of elementary particles such as electrons, quarks and photons. (Source: “Explaining Everything”, Scientific American, Jan 96).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So what happens inside the black hole? As I mentioned before, string theory proposes a 10-dimensional space-time. Six of the ten dimensions are hidden while the remaining four (3 dimensions + time) have been expanding since the big bang. Some physicists speculate that energy intense enough to activate the missing 6 dimensions might be present in the center of a black hole.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">To explain what this means, I will use the analogy of an ant walking on a thin telephone wire seeing the universe as a one-dimensional straight line. A more informed ant walking on a sheet of paper might think that the universe is two-dimensional. By leaping to a third dimension, and looking down at the piece of paper from an elevation, the ant can see that there is a lot more to the universe than the sheet of paper. “Observing” the universe from a higher dimension will certainly provide a better picture of reality. To even imagine what it would be like may be impossible.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In a figure of speech, Einstein described the very small portion of this universe that we can see and detect as “the tail of the lion”. The signs that the Prophet saw at the place described in chapters 17, 53, and 81 are definitely far greater than even the finest scientists’ minds can imagine. One thing is certain, what we see in this life is only a very small portion of reality as emphasized in 30:7.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“They know an apparent portion of the low-life and they are totally oblivious to the Hereafter” (30:7)</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">We may have not fully answered the question that we set out to answer, but by using the Quran as our only guide we are certainly closer to the truth. As with the universe, the more one looks at the Quran, the closer one gets to the truth and the more questions arise. For example, what is the tree described in 53:14. As God bestows on us more knowledge, perhaps we can try to answer some of those questions in the near future. Meanwhile, the Quran never ceases to amaze us. With God’s help, we should always seek knowledge so that we can defeat ignorance and arrogance. It is a Quranic fact that the ones that God bestows knowledge on can achieve remarkable feats.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As a side note, some theoretical physicists think that the six hidden dimensions predicted by string theory may be like branches connecting our universe to other universes. This may explain the source of the elusive “dark matter” that is holding our galaxy as well as other galaxies together. A hidden dimension may connect to matter in another universe that could be exerting the gravitational force necessary to keep the galaxies from breaking apart as a result of their rapid spin. One could speculate that because there are six hidden dimensions, this may hint to potentially six other universes in addition to our own.</p> <hr size="2" style="width: 123px" /><p class="text-align-justify"><em>IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>“This is the book, no doubt, in it guidance for the cautious.” (2:2)</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>Tomorrow our understanding of the Quran and the Universe will evolve, except if God wills otherwise. This article reflects my personal interpretation of the Quranic verses as of September 13th, 2001. Please be humble by following the example set by the angels in 2:32, verify all information within for yourself as commanded by God in 17:36, and remember that simply “none” is the cautious answer to God’s question in 45:6.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">By Ayman (<a href="mailto:drayman@fast-email.com">drayman@fast-email.com</a>)</p> </div> Wed, 07 Sep 2011 17:45:36 +0000 admin 147 at https://free-minds.org Evolution and the Qur'an https://free-minds.org/evolution-and-quran <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Evolution and the Qur&#039;an</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-03T07:07:14+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 09/03/2011 - 15:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/evolve.jpg?itok=p5D2StuR" width="208" height="152" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Recently, within the past couple of decades, there has been a revival of the debate between evolutionism and creationism. By creationism, believing that God created life without the process of evolution, is meant. The Christian creationists believe that God directly created life from clay. The process by which He created the world is not explainable, according to them, because the laws involved were not the same as the existing laws of the universe. Many Muslims are left wondering where they should stand on this topic. Almost every educated Muslim believes in the evolution of lower life forms, but not as many believe in the evolution of man. Do they believe this because of the Qur'an, or because they were fed these beliefs by their parents and teachers?</p> <p>When one studies the Qur'an to see references to creation, it makes much sense to look at Muslim scientists interpretations of certain verses of the Qur'an, who lived in the early days of Islam. When this is studied it is realized that Darwin, who gets the credit for the idea of natural selection and evidence for evolution, was one thousand years late in the discovery. The Muslim scientists ibn Kathir, ibn Khauldun, ibn Arabi, ibn Sina, among other scientists, such as the Ikhwan school of though, arrived at the same conclusions as Darwin with a convincing amount of evidence. Every Muslim school and mosque used to teach evolution up until a few hundred years ago. Some westerners, including Darwin's contemporary, Sir William Draper, called it the Mohammedan Theory of Evolution. Draper admitted that the Muslim version was more advanced than Darwin's, because in the Muslim version, the evolution starts out with minerals. The Muslim scientists used the Qur'an as their guide in doing this. Even in the most simple statement of human creation that is mentioned in the Qur'an, evolution is implied:</p> <p><em>'We initiated your creation (khalaqa), and then we shaped you...' (7:11) </em></p> <p>The Qur'an says that humans were alive while still being shaped. This implies that either humans were made from clay, but were alive even before being molded into shape or that the initiation of creation represents the first life and the shaping is the evolution. A time lapse is definitely implied. The word 'khalaqa' is derived from the root kh-l-q, which is usually translated as simply 'to create.' This definition does not give the word justice, though. The original dictionary meaning is 'to create gradually in successive stages, each one being different from the previous.' The word is almost interchangeable with the word 'evolve,' which is defined, according to The American Heritage Dictionary as 'to undergo gradual change.' For this reason, khalaq will be used instead of create and will be treated as an English word.</p> <p> </p> <p>Another verse of the Qur'an implies that there was a time lapse in the creation of man:</p> <p><em>'And lo! Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: "Behold, I am about to khalaq mortal human out of sounding clay, out of dark slim transmuted; (time lapse) and when I have fully formed and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall prostrate before him!"' (15:28-29) </em></p> <p>The clay represents the organic and inorganic matter which makes up living organisms. This interpretation is supported by the fact the Qur'an also says that man is made from 'dust' and from 'the essence of clay.' Since the Qur'an uses different objects to represent the same thing, the author of the Qur'an (which Muslims believe is God) either kept contradicted himself, or was speaking metaphorically.</p> <p>Another verse dealing with time and the creation of humans is:</p> <p>"Has there not been an endless time span when humans were not even a thing thought of? Verily, it is We who have khalaqed man out of a drop of sperm intermingled (with the female ovum)...We made him a being endowed with hearing and sight (ie; wisdom and reason)." (76:1-2)</p> <p>The Muslim evolutionists make the comment that the phrase used for 'a thing thought of,' implies the human existence at a time when it was nothing special. They contend that this can only imply that before humans were in a different form, since the creation of them is in the next verse. There are some almost identical verses which can be interpreted in two ways. Neither way explicitly contradicts evolution, though one interpretation leans more towards evolution and the other leans more towards creation. One example of this is:</p> <p><em>'...will you blaspheme against Him who has khalaqed you out of dust and then out of a drop of sperm and in the end has fashioned you into a human?' (18:37) </em></p> <p>This can be interpreted to refer to the initial act of creation, or as two both the initial creation and the successive one which happens daily. If it refers to the initial creation, then the first human was conceived like any other human and therefore had parents. The Muslim scientists of the past looked at this verse, along with scientific evidence, and interpreted it this way. There is also another repeated verse which can also be interpreted as either referring to the initial creation or the daily creation:</p> <p><em>'...He has khalaqed you in successive stages.' (71-14)</em></p> <p>Three verses after this, the Qur'an says:</p> <p><em>'And God has caused you to grow out of the earth in (gradual) growth.' (71-17) </em></p> <p>There is one verse, which is almost identically repeated throughout the whole of the Qur'an, which explicitly states what the evolutionists say about the origins of life:</p> <p><em>'And it is God who has created all 'dabbah' from the water...' </em></p> <p>(24:45 and other places) Dabbah is defined as anything which has life and spontaneous movement. This includes all animals, including man, and every other one of the eight kingdoms of life (bacteria, protozoa, etc.) excluding fungi and plants.</p> <p>Some say that the Qur'an is actually just stating that life consists of mostly water (in 1973 the Noble Prize awarded to two men who showed that life is about 80% water), denying that it is referring also to evolution. They say that people are just trying to bend the Qur'an to modern science. Considering that the original Muslim scientists inferred the same interpretation before Darwin, however, is a sufficient rebuttal against this argument.</p> <p>Another verse of the Qur'an which can be interpreted in two ways is:</p> <p><em>'It is We who have khalaqed them (time lapse) and strengthened their make...' (76:28). </em></p> <p>How did God strengthen human's make? Could it be through evolution? If this verse should be interpreted otherwise, then why does it not simply state,</p> <p><em>'It is We who have created them in a strong make,'</em></p> <p>instead of implying two separate steps and a time lapse? The same argument pertains to one translation of the following verse:</p> <p><em>'He...designed you and (time lapse) perfected your design...' (64:3) </em></p> <p>The reason why many Muslims were lead to believe in a creation story like that of the Jews is because the Jewish converts to Islam brought their traditions with them, which became mixed up with the hadith, or the traditions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Most of these hadith were discounted in the past, but they gradually became reaccepted as the educated class in Muslim countries dwindled and the illiterate class exploded.The original Genesis, from the Bible, must have been general like that of the Qur'an. Throughout the years, considering that the Bible is two thousand years old and was passed orally in the beginning, the story was changed and many additions were made. The concept that God changes all the laws of nature in order to accomplish something was a concept that the Babylonians had. This is because of the amount of natural disaster in that area, which makes God look like a constantly, and not suddenly, intervening God. Genesis borrows very heavily from Babylonian creation myths. Some people cannot distinguish between the two when they are compared side by side. It makes sense that God is more powerful if He does not need to change the laws of nature to do His will, but planned out the universe so that the laws would naturally carry out His will. Since God knows the future, He would be able to plan the laws to allow miracles, though others may have been changes in the usual laws of nature in order to demonstrate a certain point. According to the authentic hadith, w hen the Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) only son, Ibrahim (or Abraham), died, an eclipse occurred the next day. Followers thought that God, or nature, was displaying His, or its, grief. Muhammad said that God does not simply change all the laws of the universe in order to grieve for somebody. If anything, God had calculated the event to happen for the followers to learn this lesson. So, if the laws of the universe existing today are the same as those during the creation, and evolution is proven to be currently happening, then evolution must have been the process by which life exists. Creationists accept this, but they believe that the laws are different now, than during the original 'six days'. It is very difficult to have a scientific debate, when the ground rules cannot even be agreed upon.</p> <p>As mentioned, in the areas where the original Jews and the Babylonians lived, life was heavily affected by natural disasters. This is why throughout the history of these people, they imagined God as one Who is constantly intervening with His power. This contrasts to the people of the Nile, who were used to the gradual rising of the floods helping their crops and benefiting the villages. These people naturally imagined God to create things in stages and not to keep changing the laws of nature. Historians have trouble explaining why Muhammad (PBUH) talked about creating things in stages if he supposedly was simply a plagiarist of the Bible.</p> <p>Some Muslims may question how evolution was possible if Adam and Eve were created in Heaven. The Qur'an, when analyzed, never states that Adam and Eve were in heaven. It actually implies that they were created on Earth as the modern Christians and Jews believe. During the time of the Prophet (pbuh), the Jews and Christians believed that Adam and Eve were created in Heaven; so again, their beliefs were mixed into Muslim beliefs. According to the Qur'an, in Heaven, there is no such thing as aging or decay. Yet in the Qur'an Adam and Eve knew they were going to die, and Satan tried to deceive them by telling them that the metaphorical tree would give them eternal life. "But Satan whispered unto him, saying,</p> <p><em>'O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternal Life, and to a kingdom of that will never decay?'" (20:120) </em></p> <p>If they were in Heaven, they would have no need for this fruit. Also, what kingdom would Satan be referring to if they were already in Heaven? In addition, the place where Adam and Eve stayed had the sun. There is only one sun, and that is in the Earth's solar system</p> <p><em>. '...and thou shalt not thirst here or suffer from the heat of the sun.' (20:119) </em></p> <p>Unless Heaven is in Earth's solar system, which would contradict statements of the Qur'an which say otherwise, they must have lived on Earth.</p> <p>Another example of how Judeo-Christian beliefs were mixed into Islamic ones, is that many Muslim children are taught that Eve was made from Adam's rib. This, though stated in the Bible, is never in the Qur'an. Firstly, the Qur'an never even states whether Adam or Eve was created first. The Qur'an says that humankind 'was created from one soul and its mate.' The word for soul, 'nafs,' is feminine. So there is no implication that Adam was created first. Yusuf Ali, under the influence of the Bible, mistranslates those verses into, 'mankind was created from one soul and his mate.' Though the Qur'an does say that the 'mate was created from the it (the first soul),' it does not say by which process. The most logical way to interpret this, is that God means to say that the mate was from the same essence, or scientifically, the same species as the first soul. Muhammad Asad, a German Jew who converted to Islam, agrees with this in his famous translation and commentary of the Qur'an.</p> <p>The names Adam and Eve even imply the allegorical nature of their story. Adam comes from a Hebrew word meaning, 'the dark-colored one' or 'humankind' and Eve means, 'the mother of the people.' Therefore, the names are very much like descriptions of the first people who could differentiate between right and wrong. They may have never even had direct communication with God. They originally followed their preprogrammed instincts, but they did something which let them reason for themselves. This something is symbolized by the tree. Even the way the tree is described as the Tree of Eternal Life or the Tree of the Knowledge between Good and Evil, displays its metaphorical nature.</p> <p>The creationists try to disprove evolution in many different ways. They almost always use negative arguments. For example, because of this and this, the present evolutionary theory is false, therefore creation is true. Look in any book on how to argue, take any debate class or look at the p implies q logic used in math. Creationist have committed the converse error argument. One of the most common things they say is the the Second Law of Thermodynamics does not allow evolution to happen. Scientists, therefore, for scores of years, completely forgot one of the most basic laws of science when arriving at the conclusion of evolution, according to them. This law states that everything tends to change from order to disorder (entropy), or that all usable energy tends to be lost as unusable energy, namely heat. For example, one's hair begins the day nice and combed, but ends messy. A teenager's room starts out being clean, and in a few days becomes a mess. When a ball drops, it may only bounce back up on e-third of the way, because energy was lost in the form of sound and heat, and some energy was absorbed into the ground. Therefore, the originally chaotic world could not have gone the reverse of the law and have attained more orderliness. The problem with this argument is that the law only applies to a closed system. This means that no matter or energy is added or subtracted from it. Hair can be fixed nicely all day if it is brushed again now and then. The earth is not a closed system. The earth has matter added to it every time a meteor comes in the atmosphere and has energy added to it from the sun. Therefore, the argument is useless. The creationists cannot even get their basics in chemistry correct, it seems. Another argument is that the earth is only 6,500 to 10,000 years old. These numbers are calculated from the genealogies contained in the Bible. The earth can be dated through a variety of methods. This includes dating by the ratio of uranium to lead, rubidium to strontium and strontium-8 7 to strontium-86. Every single method of dating the earth leads to approximately the same conclusion. The earth is around 4.5 billion years old. The suns size, color, heat and other things can used to be calculate the age of it. The same number is reached by all methods. By the laws of chemistry, these methods are completely reliable. All of the creationists' arguments against these methods have been completely futile. The methods are not even explained correctly in the books written by the ICR, which use the art of distortion to try to convince readers of their viewpoint. Some creationists state that though the original proportions of atoms can be known, the time period in which they were in that proportion is merely conjecture.</p> <p>This is completely against the commonly known algebraic rule which says that if the formula of the decay is known, which even the ICR agrees on, the graph can show the time of equilibrium from the interceptions of the graph. The only thing that creationists can still say, which some do say, is that God purposely made the earth appear old, therefore not letting humans find the origins of the earth. Muslims cannot accept this view, because according to both the Qur'an and the authentic hadith, God provides humans with all the evidence of how the earth was created. This evidence serves as proof of His existence, according to Muslims. If God told humans one thing and gave the evidence for another, this would do the opposite of proving His existence. Some Muslims even try to say that one cannot question the origins of the earth, but must blindly accept the common view of the Muslim world. This is completely a western idea, not supported by the Qur'an. Some Qur'anic passages which exemplify the previous statements are:</p> <p><em>'Say: Go all over Earth and observe how He has created (man) in the first instance.' (29:20) </em></p> <p><em>'When they are told, 'Follow what God has revealed herein,' they say, 'We follow what we found our parents doing.' What if their parents did not understand, and were not guided?' (2:170) </em></p> <p><em>'They found their parents astray. And they blindly followed in their footsteps.' (37:69-70) </em></p> <p><em>'He is the one who continuously show you proofs and sends down provisions from the sky. Only those who truly submit will be able to take heed.' (40:13) </em></p> <p><em>'We shall show then Our signs on the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth.' (41:53) </em></p> <p><em>'...We have distinguished the signs for a people who understand.' (6:97) </em></p> <p><em>'...Say, 'Show us your proof, if you are right.' (2:111) </em></p> <p><em>'Most of them follow nothing but conjecture, and conjecture is no substitute for the truth. God is fully aware of everything they do.' (10:36) </em></p> <p><em>'And they (who will go to Hell) will say: 'Oh, our Sustainer! Behold, we followed our leaders and our great men, and it is they who led us astray from the right path.' (33:67) </em></p> <p><em>'Verily, the vilest creatures in the sight of God are those deaf and dumb and do not use any of their reason.' (8:22) </em></p> <p>Whole books have been written on the subject of creationism vs. evolution, this essay introduces some of the basic arguments for evolution in light of Qur'an. A soon to be published book, written by Dr. T.O. Shanavaz extensively covers the Qur'anic and Muslim scientist view on the creation of the universe and of man. This essay touches on the major points of evolution in the Qur'an, including some points not advanced by Dr. Shanavaz's book. Muhammad Asad's and Muhammad Ali's translations of the Qur'an also support evolution. There are also many other books written on this subject, including the available original works of the Muslim evolutionist of the past.</p> <p>Muslims must understand that religious ideas can be interpreted in different ways in order to match the changing times. There is only one absolute truth, but as long as it does not contradict whatever truth exists in a certain point in time, the latter is acceptable. If Muslims were to go to the original source of Islam, the Qur'an, without biases from their teachings of their parents and teachers, the Muslim world will once again prosper. When people stopped questioning, the Muslim empire fell. One must remember the famous saying of the Prophet (PBUH), 'God's greatest gift to humans is reason.'</p> <ul><li> Ashley Montagu. Science and Creationism. New York, US. Oxford University Press, 1984.</li> <li> Maurice Bucaille, translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the author. The Bible, the Qur'an and Science. Indianapolis, Indiana, US: North American Trust Publications, 1978.</li> <li> Ahmad Mahmud Soliman. Scientific Trends in the Qur'an. London, England: Ta-Ha Publisher Ltd., 1985</li> <li> Seyyed Hossein Nasr. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Albany, US: State University of New York Press, 1993</li> <li> Muhammad Asad. The Message of the Qur'an. Melksham, Wiltshire, Great Britain. Redwood Press Limited, 1993</li> <li> Yusuf Ali. The Holy Qur'an. Lahore, Pakistan. Muhammad Ashraf Publications, 1990.</li> </ul><p> </p> <p> </p> <hr /><p> </p> <p class="rtecenter">By Ali Arshad (<a href="mailto:aarsha@tc3net.com">aarsha@tc3net.com</a>)</p> </div> Sat, 03 Sep 2011 07:07:14 +0000 admin 144 at https://free-minds.org Honey: A Gift From God https://free-minds.org/honey-gift-god <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Honey: A Gift From God</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-02T17:39:24+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 09/03/2011 - 01:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/honey2.jpg?itok=mNOrr9N0" width="183" height="275" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify"><em>16:68- Wa 'awhaa Rabbuka 'ilan nahli 'anitta-khithi minal-ji-baali buyuutanwwa minash-shajari wa mimmaa ya'-ri-shuun; </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>16:68- and your Lord revealed to the Bee saying: Make hives in the mountains and in the trees and in that which they (people) build; </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>16:69- Thumma kulii min kullith-thamaraati faslukii subula Rabbiki thululaa. Yakhruju min-butuunihaa sharaabum-mukhtalifun 'alwaanuhuu fiihi shifaa-'ul-linaas: 'inna fii thaa-lika la-'Aayatalli-qawminy-ya-tafakkaruun. </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>16:69- then eat of all the fruits and walk in the ways of your Lord submissively. There comes forth from within it (the bee) a beverage of many colors, in which there is healing for men; most surely there is a sign in this for a people who reflect. </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">My goal in writing this article is to help my brothers and sisters in Islam to gain a greater understanding of these two ayat. The bee is beneficial for humans because of many reasons, some of which I will mention in this article. I have interpreted the ayah above to be describing honey and through my research I have much evidence to believe that this interpretation is correct. However, if it is not the correct interpretation than at least we will discuss the health benefits of honey. I pray that Allah will forgive my mistakes and all of the Knowledge belongs to Him.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>16:68- and your Lord revealed to the bee saying: Make hives in the mountains and in the trees and in that which they (people) build; </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Do you not think that it is interesting that Allah commanded the bees to build their nests near the homes of people?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Bees make honey from the nectar of flowers and they will travel as far as 40,000 miles and visit over 2 million flowers just to make one pound of honey. It is amazing that Allah gave these tiny creatures so much energy and medicinal value! Yes, honey has medicinal benefits, some of which are:</p> <ul><li class="text-align-justify">Good unrefined honey contains pollen. When we eat it (unrefined honey) regularly over an extended period of time we build-up a tolerance for pollen. In doing so, many people could drastically lower the pain of spring allergies.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">Applying honey to wounds prevents infection and greatly decreases the time that it takes for the wound to heal. It has antimicrobial agents, which kill bacteria in and around the wound. I have actually tried this before and it works miraculously better than all of the other "infection preventing" medicines.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">Honey is also effective in treating stomach ulcers.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">It is a good source of glucose and fructose, which reduces fatigue. I will note here that honey is a better source of energy than caffeine because caffeine contains several dangerous chemicals.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">It is a good source of antioxidants.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">When honey is diluted in water it will help with stomachaches and dehydration.</li> </ul><p class="text-align-justify">So now we can see that honey does have very much healing power. Allah, may he be glorified, has revealed many amazing ayat in his Qur'an, and we should conduct further research in order that we may have a greater understanding of his Book.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">May Allah Bless The Ummat Ibraheem!</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">By Garon Lee (<a href="mailto:allpraise2allah@aol.com">allpraise2allah@aol.com</a>)</p> </div> Fri, 02 Sep 2011 17:39:24 +0000 admin 143 at https://free-minds.org The Role of Science in the Qur'an https://free-minds.org/role-science-quran <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Role of Science in the Qur&#039;an</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-02T10:04:16+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 09/02/2011 - 18:04</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/scein.jpg?itok=E67qH8yU" width="140" height="140" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for men of understanding,- They remember God while standing, sitting, and on their sides, and they reflect upon the creation of the heavens and the earth: "Our Lord, You did not create all this in vain. Be You glorified. Save us from the retribution of Hell. (3:190-191)</p> <p>Science Vs. religion has always been a polemic. In the present day the impression of science is something that should be taken away from religious belief. However, many of today's Muslims are looking back to the romantica of the Muslim scientist legacy (700 - 1500 C.E.) when science, astronomy and mathematical discoveries were contributed by Muslims scientist before the European Renaissance.</p> <p>Most of the points in this article are taken from the book "Holy Quran and the science of nature".</p> <p>Science is a knowledge (of natural phenomena) and the concept is based on observation and thought activity. It is a dynamic process which is dependent on the data and human perception (and paradigm). It is also apt to changes with time. On the other hand, the Muslim (submitters to God) believe the Quran is the true manifestation from God, but we realize also that our understanding and perception on the Quran about natural phenomena can be relative and also can change with time/discoveries. Thus, to make a dogmatic understanding of natural phenomena based on the Quran may also mislead the truth/direction.</p> <p><em>"A Book, whereof the verses are explained in detail;- a Qur'an in Arabic, for people who have knowledge (yaaalamoona) (41:3)" </em></p> <p><strong>What is the role of science to Islam? </strong></p> <p>In the Quran, we are encouraged to observe and study natural phenomena as one of the way to know and to remember (the greatness and the glory) of God, the Creator.</p> <p><em>See they not how God originates creation, then repeats it: truly that is easy for God. Say: "Travel through the earth and see how God did originate creation; so will God produce a later creation: for God has power over all things (29:19-20). </em></p> <p><em>Say, "Look at all the signs in the heavens and the earth." All the proofs and all the warnings can never help people who decided to disbelieve (10:101). </em></p> <p><strong>God's signs in His creations can be attained by human perception. </strong></p> <p><em>It is He (God) who sends down rain from the sky: from it ye drink, and out of it (grows) the vegetation on which ye feed your cattle. With it He produces for you corn, olives, date-palms, grapes and every kind of fruit: verily in this is a sign for those who give thought/contemplate (yatafakkaroona). He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; the sun and the moon; and the stars are in subjection by His Command: verily in this are signs for men who use their reason/sense (yaAAqiloona) (16:10-12). </em></p> <p>The words/terms 'tafakkur' (to think), 'tafaqquh' (to understanding), 'tadabbur' (to contemplate), 'Aql' (using reason/sense), 'sudoori' (chest) 'qalb'(heart), 'ilm' (knowledge), ulama (who have knowledge), 'ulul ilm' (those undue with knowledge) i.e. 3:18, 'ulul absar' in (those who have vision) i.e. in 24:44, 'ulul albab' (those endue with understanding) i.e. in 3:7, 38:29, 'ulul yadi wal absar (those endue possessors of power and vision) in 38:45 and ulul azmi (those endue firmness of hearts), i.e in 46:35 are used (addressed to us) in the Quran.</p> <p><em>"Without doubt, the worst of beasts in God's sight are the deaf, the dumb, who do not use their Aql (reason/ sense)" (8:22) </em></p> <p>Natural phenomena is something that can be studied/understood, as everything is in the order and balance of God' law</p> <p><em>We have made the Night and the Day as two (of Our) signs: the Sign of the Night have We obscured, while the sign of the Day We have made to enlighten you; that ye may seek bounty from your Lord, and that ye may know he number and count (hisab) of the years: all things have We explained in detail (17:12) </em></p> <p><em>The sun and the moon are perfectly calculated. The stars and the trees prostrate. He constructed the sky and established the law. You shall not transgress the law (55:7-8). </em></p> <p><em>As for the earth, we constructed it, and placed on it stabilizers (mountains), and we grew on it a perfect balance of everything (15:19). </em></p> <p><em>"God has knowledge of everything" (33:40) </em></p> <p><em>.. Teacheth man that which he knew not (96:5). </em></p> <p><strong>The more we understand God's creation the more we know the greatness of God, </strong></p> <p><em>Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts ? Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim (67:34). </em></p> <p><strong>But we also have to realize our limitations. </strong></p> <p>Glory to God, who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge (36:36).</p> <p>Science from a Quranic perspective can be a tool to raise up the standard of living of the society. By understanding science we are able to utilize what God has given and provided for us, so we may be thankful for His blessing.</p> <p><em>It is He (God) who has made the earth manageable for you, so traverse ye through its tracts and enjoy of the Sustenance which He furnishes: but unto Him is the Resurrection (67:15) </em></p> <p><em>God it is who hath made the sea of service unto you that the ships may run thereon by His command, and that ye may seek of His bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful; And hath made of service unto you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth; it is all from Him. Lo! herein verily are portents for a people who reflect (45:12-13) </em></p> <p>By mastering science (and other knowledge), it is also in-line with the the purpose of Islam, to build a "monotheistic" society as the highest society (not a repressive society).</p> <p><em>Thus, have We (God) made of you an nation justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Apostle a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Apostle from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by God. And never would God Make your faith of no effect. For God is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful (2:143). </em></p> <p><strong>A society which balances the material and the spiritual dimensions: </strong></p> <p><em>And seek by means of what God has given you the future abode, and do not neglect your portion of this world, and do good (to others) as God has done good to you, and do not seek to make mischief in the land, surely God does not love the mischief-makers (28:77). </em></p> <p><strong>And cares for the harmony of the environment and does not transgress the limit. </strong></p> <p><em>The servant of the Most Gracious are those who treat the earth gently, and when the ignorant speak to them, they only utter peace (25:63). </em></p> <p><em>When he turns his back, His aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But God loveth not mischief (2:205). </em></p> <p><strong>And does not force its ways on others. [(10:99),(18:29),(16:125),(29:46-47)]. </strong></p> <p>The Quran is the guide and provides solutions and answers in any step of our life, and it is boundless by any condition, time, circumstances, frame or paradigm.</p> <p><em>.... We (God) have revealed to you this book (Quran) to provide exposition for everything (likulli shay-in), and guidance, and mercy, and good news for the submitters to God (muslim) (16:89) </em></p> <p><em>Say, "If the ocean were ink for the words of my Lord (in the Quran), the ocean would run out, before the words of my Lord run out, even if we double the ink supply." (18:109) </em></p> <p>There are many verses that show us natural phenomena that remind us and attract our attention toward God, the Creator of the universe (some of which can be perceived by the discoveries of modern science).</p> <p>For example;</p> <p><strong>Versus about the creation of universe. </strong></p> <p><em>"Your Lord is the one GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days (yaum), then assumed all authority. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is GOD, Lord of the universe (7:54) </em></p> <p><em>"Do not the unbelievers see that the heaven and earth were one unit (as one unit of creation) then We (God) ripped them apart " (21:30) </em></p> <p><em>"Then He (God) took hold of the sky when it was smoke (dukhan)" (41:11) </em></p> <p><em>".. and the heavens (sky/universe) we created with might (power) and we are expanding it" (51:47) </em></p> <p><em>"...as if it were a brilliant star........whose oil (fuel) is well lit, even no fire touches it "(24:3) </em></p> <p><em>"He (God) has ordained the sun and the moon, each one runs (it's course) for an appointed time " (13:2) </em></p> <p><em>".. and the earth, after that, He (God) made it 'dahaha' (oval shape) (79:30)" . </em></p> <p><em>"And the sun constantly journeys towards a homing place for it and for the moon We (God) have determined phases" (36:39) </em></p> <p><strong>Versus about the creation of living things. </strong></p> <p><em>".........and We (God) made, from water, every living thing" (21:30) </em></p> <p><em>"We (God) have created man from a Clay" (23:12) </em></p> <p><em>"Then We (God) placed him (man) as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (fetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be God, the best to create! (75:4) </em></p> <p><em>"And He (God) created you in stages (or phases) "(71:14) </em></p> <p><strong>Versus reminding us of the Judgment-day and our resurrection. </strong></p> <p><em>"And the Day that the Trumpet will be sounded - then will be smitten with terror those who are in the heavens, and those who are on earth, except such as God will please (to exempt): and all shall come to His (Presence) as beings conscious of their lowliness. When you look at the mountains, you think that they are standing still. But they are moving, like the clouds. Such is the manufacture of God, who perfected everything. He is fully cognizant of everything you do." (27:87-88) </em></p> <p><em>"And when the heaven (sky) splitteth asunder and become red like a rose" (55:37) </em></p> <p><em>"When stars lose their luster"(77:8) </em></p> <p><em>"When the sun is rounded (swelling like a ball) when the stars have collapsed when the oceans boil over in a swell" (81:6) </em></p> <p><em>"Lo! the day of decision is a fixed time, A day when the trumpet is blown and ye come in multitudes, And the heaven is opened and becometh as gates" (78:17-19) </em></p> <p><em>O people, if you have any doubt about resurrection, (remember that) We (God) created you from dust, and subsequently from a tiny drop, which turns into a hanging (embryo), then it becomes a fetus that is given life or deemed lifeless. We thus clarify things for you. We settle in the wombs whatever we will for a predetermined period. We then bring you out as infants, then you reach maturity. While some of you die young, others live to the worst age, only to find out that no more knowledge can be attained beyond a certain limit. Also, you look at a land that is dead, then as soon as we shower it with water, it vibrates with life and grows all kinds of beautiful plants (22:5). </em></p> <p>Finally, as an epilog, I would like to ask why most of the religious people are so allergic when it comes to the word 'evolution'?.</p> <p><em>"He is Allah (God), the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms ...." (59:24). </em></p> <p>in which</p> <p><em>To God belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth, and all matters are controlled by God (3:109). </em></p> <p>and in the Quran it is said</p> <p><em>"And He (God) created you in stages (or phases)" (71:14). </em></p> <p>Can people who are allergic to the word 'evolution' explain how the first elephant came to earth, in the sense of science? At least, I believe whatever processes happen in the universe, all is under God's control, and there can be a lot of parameters that we don't know yet that are not included into the model of deductive logic in science.</p> <p><em>Soon will We (God) show them our signs in the regions, and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things (41:53) </em></p> <p>This article is written not free from error, and it does not necessary reflect Islam due to human mistakes and my limitation. Critics are welcome.</p> <p>To get more information on Islam, read the Quran and all will be revealed...</p> <p> </p> <blockquote><p>References :</p> <p>Golshani M., 1999, The holly Quran and the science of nature, Global Publications, 242 pages</p> <p>The Nature and Philosophy of Science <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/mn2/tisthammerw/science.htm">http://www.angelfire.com/mn2/tisthammerw/science.htm</a></p> <p>Philosophy of Science <a href="http://www.friesian.com/science.htm">http://www.friesian.com/science.htm</a></p> <p>Muslim scientist, mathematicians, and astronomers <a href="http://users.erols.com/zenithco/index.html">http://users.erols.com/zenithco/index.html</a></p> </blockquote> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">By LQ (<a href="mailto:learnquran@hotmail.com">learnquran@hotmail.com</a>)</p> </div> Fri, 02 Sep 2011 10:04:16 +0000 admin 141 at https://free-minds.org An Exposition of the Nature of Angels https://free-minds.org/exposition-nature-angels <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">An Exposition of the Nature of Angels</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-27T17:16:56+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 08/28/2011 - 01:16</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/angel.jpg?itok=6vmA9-vr" width="191" height="263" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>I wish to relate to you various details the Quran presents about the angels of Allah, in order to present a coherent outlook on these beings created by Allah (if Allah Wills). Please read it and remember that it is ONLY Allah Who possesses the ultimate answers to all questions.</p> <ol><li> With Name: The God, The Compassionate, The Merciful.</li> <li> Praise The God, Lord the Worlds!!</li> <li> The Compassionate, The Merciful.</li> <li> Possessor: Period the Judgment.</li> <li> Your's venerator and Your's caller.</li> <li> Donate the Path; the Right One.</li> <li> Path; the Ones, those Ones Blessed. Not those; the Damned Ones, nor the Strayed Ones." (Quran; al-Fatiha)</li> </ol><p>The angels are beings CREATED by Allah (18:51) and are here in order to obey their Lord by executing certain commands given to them by Allah (6:111). Angels may have been created by the invisible forces used to create Iblis ('smokeless fire') since Iblis BECAME ('kana') a Jinn due to his will to disobey his Lord (and hence we can reasonably suppose that he was an angel before his fall and also that angels who disobey a command 'fall' into the state of a Jinn?). However, these angels are not sent down in purely visible forms otherwise the respite given to the disbelievers would be over- angels could be sent down from heaven if Allah Willed, and he would be in the form of a man (6:8-9) although even then they would not believe except as Allah Wills (15:8).</p> <p>Unfortunately, despite the guidance given by Allah to men, men have developed a sour tendency to venerate angels as divine beings and have furthermore expressed their innate desire to personify them by applying a gender to them; men had once thought angels were females and hence named them with female names (17:40). The Quran states that they are NOT females as men thought which is why an interrogative demand has been expressed, encouraging one to question this erroneous belief (37:150).</p> <p>The angels are NOT divine beings for ALLAH IS LORD OF THE UNIVERSE (1:1)- on the contrary, they are servants of Him just as we humans are, although they are distinguished from humans on the basis of their various duties (38:164-166). The various duties of the angels are as follows (although not fully exhausted):</p> <p>1) carrying and dispatching certain revelations from Allah (16:2). 2) driving winds and regulating natural forces (77:1-4). 3) putting men to death (6:61). 4) guarding men at various geographical localities within the proximity of the human body (13:11). 5) recording all of our actions, including thoughts (82:10-12).</p> <p>They have either 2 or 3 or 4 wings (35:1) and are heavenly messengers of Allah ('rusul') (35:1). The angels pursue their assigned duties with vigorous passion and desire (79:4-5) and without tiring from venerating Allah (41:38). They carry out every command told (66:6). Messengers are thus chosen from BOTH angels and humans (22:75). Angels, however, are the most advanced forms of creation as they are those NEAREST to Allah and are able to exert undiminishing influence on natural forces that are in play on earth (29:34). Furthermore, there are 2 angels that record us at both the left and the right- this may be a symbolic reference to the good and bad deeds that man commits (50:17-18). They are able to interact with humans through anthropomorphical manifestations (i.e. physically) as is shown by various noteworthy historical events such as visiting Lut (29:34), dwelling with men at Babel (2:102), announcing Yahya's birth (3:39), announcing Isa's birth (3:45) and also greeting Abraham and his family (11:69-70). Angels may also help believers during war or turmoil or even in order to help men receive true guidance from Allah (3:125). The angels also have the role of praying for forgiveness for those on earth, with the Quran giving one an illustrative supplication designated for the believers (40:7-9). There are 3 angels directly mentioned by name (as I am aware)- Malik, within the context of Hell (43:77), and Haroot and Maroot (2:102). There are angels who guard Hell (66:6) and 19 in quantity (74:30). The angels shall come in the Day of Judgment in a compact array, although in ranks (89:22). There will be 8 angels who will bear the Throne of Allah (69:17) and they will be visible (2:210), and the angels will venerate Allah (39:75). However, the disbelievers will find it too late to believe then as the time will have elapsed (6:158). In normal earth-time (I believe), the angels descend in the Night of Power (97:4). They themselves will be questioned on the Day of Judgment and they will declare their obedience to Allah while exposing the sin of men (34:41). They will admonish the sinful as they enter Hell while greeting the believers at the Garden (13:23).</p> <p>Angels are not to be confused with the Spirit(s). The two are distinguished in the Quran as having a different nature. The Spirit, like an angel, can assume a physical form (19:17) although it also has the function of inspiring hearts with revelation (16:102). There are 2 'special' beings described as being neither angels nor Spirits directly, although the implicit suggestion is that they may occupy both forms or to a greater extent, have functions that resemble both types of being- one of these beings has been displayed with no reference to function other than requiring belief in him ('Mikael'), while the other has been assigned a more renown position and holds indirect epithets of 'Ruh ul Amin' and 'Ruh ul Quds'- Spirit of Trustworthiness and Spirit of Holiness respectively; 'Jibrael' (2:97). Jibrael has been bestowed with the gifts of power and wisdom (53:5-6) and he appeared in a visible form twice- once when he was assigned to convey inspiration to Muhammad (53:10) and again when he was seen near the Lote-Tree (53:14-15), although in this event no reference to inspiration-through-revelation has been made. Therefore, it is clear that a Spirit ('ruh') can be manifested through either knowledge (16:2) or through a physical being (3:45).</p> <p>However, BOTH angels and the Spirit ascend to Allah in a Period, the measure of which is 50 000 years (70:4). They will BOTH stand before Allah on the Day of Judgment and will not speak, except as Allah Wills, saying only that which is right (79:38).</p> <p>It is a necessity for a believer in Allah to accept the existence of both angels and the Spirit- 2:285, for they are helping us to live, although it must always be known that it is ALLAH Who regulates ALL affairs (22:76). The angels and the Spirit and humans and all other living beings and things in the Universe(s) are mere TOOLS that both establish and coincide with His Decree. It is VERY important to appreciate this inferiority on our behalf before our Lord and before the Final Day arrives when the Ultimate Truth shall prevail...</p> <p>"And we do not descend except by the Command of your Lord. To Him belong our Future and our Past and all that lies in between them. And your Lord never forgets. Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth and of all that lies in between them. You shall venerate Him and remain patient and constant in your veneration of Him. Do you know any worthy of the same Name as He?" (Quran; 19:64-65)</p> <p>PRAISE ALLAH, LORD THEWORLDS!</p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">By Mafkhir (<a href="mailto:mafkhir@hotmail.com">mafkhir@hotmail.com</a>)</p> </div> Sat, 27 Aug 2011 17:16:56 +0000 admin 109 at https://free-minds.org The Hidden Side & The Straight Path https://free-minds.org/hidden-side-straight-path <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Hidden Side &amp; The Straight Path</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-27T10:16:26+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 08/27/2011 - 18:16</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/path.jpg?itok=3IDaLKsE" width="162" height="160" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify">I seek refuge with The God from Satan the outcast. Guide us the straight path. [1:6]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Previous research in the Quran about the Trust/"Amana" in verse 33:72 indicated that humankind only knows an apparent/detectable side of the low life and there is a hidden side that we are unaware of (see <a href="http://free-minds.org/trust">THE TRUST</a>). Also, the hidden side has information about the ending:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">They know what is apparent/perceptible/detectable from the low life, and they, about the ending, are unaware/oblivious [30:7]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">One must have faith in that hidden ending, in order to follow the straight path:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And surely you are calling/inviting them to the straight path; and surely those who do not have faith in the ending are deviating from the path. [23:73-74]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So what more from the Quran can we find out about that hidden ending and the straight path?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the following study, unless The God wills, I will try to explain from the Quran what I can understand about the hidden side and the straight path. I hope my Lord guides to what is nearer in rationality. Also, if The God willed, the outcome of this study will be beneficial for the reader.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE HIDDEN ENDING</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">What is hidden from us?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And so a self ("nafs") doesn't know what I hide for them from bliss of the eyes, a reward for what they were doing [32:17]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">According to the above verse, heaven is hidden from us. Verses 3:133 and 57:21 mention that the width/facet (the front elevation) of heaven is equal to all of the space and the earth:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And quicken/speed to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden/paradise, whose facet/width is the skies and the earth, was prepared to the forethoughtful. [3:133]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We know that the skies and the earth that we live in are three-dimensional plus the time dimension (i.e. 3D+time). So what verses 3:133 and 57:21 are saying is that the front elevation or width of heaven is equivalent to all the dimensions of the skies and the earth. This means that heaven must be in a higher dimension, which is hidden from us.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">To clarify this point, let's imagine for a minute that our universe is only 1D. Figure 1 shows the width of a higher dimensional 2D universe (in blue) that is equivalent in size to our entire hypothetical 1D universe (in green). Similarly, for heaven's front elevation/width to be equivalent to all the 3D of the universe we live in, it must be at least four-dimensional. Moreover, like us, the 1D beings living in this imaginary 1D universe would be totally unaware of the higher dimension universe.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/path01.gif" style="width: 176px; height: 150px" /></em></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Figure 1. Just the width of a 2D universe (in blue) is equivalent to the entire 1D Universe (in green).</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Thus heaven can be at every point in our universe, but simply hidden from us. On the day of the ending, the cover placed on humankind will be removed and the hidden side will be apparent:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">You were in unawareness/obliviousness of this, so We removed your cover/veil, so your vision today is iron [50:22]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Why iron? What is so special about iron and how does it relate to vision?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As it turns out, iron has some very special properties. Iron as we all know is a natural magnet. Stick a magnet to your refrigerator door and it defies gravity. Where two oppositely directed magnetic streams merge, they produce vortices similar to merging streams of water (1).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Iron seems to give virtual photons (flux quanta) a better grip for magnetic attraction when passing through. Force carrying particles of magnetic flux are called virtual photons because unlike regular photons, they cannot be directly detected by a particle detector.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Massive objects such as moons, planets, and stars provide noticeable gravity that works on everything with mass. All objects with mass around us, including you and I, have some gravitational force (virtual photons) and attract everything else with mass. Fortunately, unlike planets and stars the force provided is related to the mass, so people only provide a very small force.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The most powerful magnets in the universe are called black holes. When a massive star goes supernova, it collapses into itself and leaves behind a black hole. A black hole is an object of such dense mass and with a gravitational field so strong that the escape velocity exceeds the speed of light. Because black holes have a magnetic field, and it can get out, this seems to imply that virtual photons travel faster than the speed of light. Since we know that the speed light is the speed limit within our 3D+time universe, then virtual photons may be traveling through a higher hidden dimension. So perhaps the reason that virtual photons cannot be detected is that their mass is in another hidden dimension, with only force detectable in our visible dimensions.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So the question is what would we witness if our eyes had iron that enabled us to see virtual photons instead of the regular photons comprising the narrow band of electromagnetic spectrum known as visible light that we normally see?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The answer is that we would be able to see the hidden dimension and the cover that is presently preventing us from seeing the hidden side would be removed.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We would also be able to see the hidden "dark matter" which scientists estimate comprises about 90% of our universe and is only known by the gravitational force it exerts on galaxies.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">From the Quran, I believe that Dawoud (David) and his son Soloman were able to have access to the hidden side. According to the Quran, The God made the iron yield to Dawoud:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And We had given/brought Dawoud grace/favor from Us: "O mountains, return with him, and the birds." And We yielded/flexed for him the iron. [34:10]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Perhaps the ability to be in command of iron and its special properties may explain how Dawoud and Soloman were able to access the hidden side of mountains, birds, and even ants (see 27:19).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Like the virtual photons that can travel faster than the speed of light in the hidden dimensions, that who The God gave knowledge to was able to bring the queen's throne to Solomon faster than the speed of light:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Who is at him knowledge from The Book said: "I bring to you with it before that your vision rebounds to you." So when he saw it established/affixed at him, he said: "This is from my Lord's grace/favor/blessing, to test me do I thank/be grateful, or I disbelieve, and who thanked/became grateful, so but he thanks/becomes grateful for his self, and who disbelieved, so then my Lord is rich, honored/generous" [27:40]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As clear from 27:39, the Jinn are more limited and cannot accomplish such feats. So how about the jinn? Do they have access to the hidden side?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Like us, the jinn do not have access to the hidden as indicated by this verse:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So when We accomplished on him the death, nothing hinted them to his death except the Earth's walker/creeper/crawler, eating his staff, so when he fell down, the jinns understood that if they were knowing the hidden, they would not have remained in the disgracing torture. [34:14]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">According to my understanding of 2:38, everybody (human and jinn) was "lowered" from the higher dimension(s) of heaven into the low life:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We said: "Drop/decline from it, all together, so when a guidance from Me comes to you, so who followed My guidance, so no fear/fright on them and nor they be sad/grieving. [2:38]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Out of the Jinn, perhaps only Iblis still has access to the hidden side because he asked to be delayed until resurrection day, and The God granted his request (see 7:14-15). This maybe why, out of the jinns, only Iblis can stealthily suggest ("waswas") to humankind. Notice that when Adam and spouse were still in heaven, Iblis is described in the Quran as both communicating directly to them (see 7:20-21) and stealthily suggesting to them (see 20:120). Now that we and the jinns are no longer aware of the hidden side, he can only stealthily suggest to us but not communicate directly with us (see 114:5-6).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The self ("Nafs") can also stealthily suggest ("waswas") to the human:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We have created man, and We know what his self stealthily suggest to him, and We are closer to him than the jugular vein [50:16]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This may imply that the self ("Nafs") also resides in the hidden side. From 39:42, it seems that during sleep we may have some access to the hidden side:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The God makes the selves die at the time of its death/lifelessness, and which did not die in its sleep, so He holds/seizes which He ordered the death/lifelessness on it, and He sends the others to a named/specified term/time, that truly in that are evidences/signs to a nation thinking. [39:42]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another indication that sleep may give us some access to the hidden side is in the story of Youssef (Joseph). As an interesting side note, recent research suggests that iron in the body is essential for the normal progression of sleep patterns leading to dreams(2). The story of Youssef may give us some hints because in it dreams seem to be able to symbolize future outcomes. Youssef had the ability to translate the symbolic dreams in 12:36 and 12:43 into what they correspond to in our 3D+time low life. Those "time travel" dreams are probably symbolic because our brains can only handle 3D+time sensory input and cannot handle sensory data from higher dimensions, including perhaps higher time dimension(s), so the data gets "down converted" into symbols. So, according to this, the hidden dimension may provide some information about future outcomes. Is there other evidence in the Quran of foreknowledge of future outcomes?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another example of access to the hidden side and knowing future outcomes may lie in chapter 18 where Moses meets what could possibly be a time traveler from the future or somebody with information about future outcomes. When The God's servant decided to part with Moses he gave him information to explain his actions in three separate incidents (see 18:71-77):</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"As for the boat, it belonged to poor/impoverished working in the sea/ocean/river, so I wanted/intended that I defect it, and after them was a king he takes every boat forcefully." [18:79]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the first incident, "I" refers to the servant. This first action (making a defect in the boat) didn't require any special knowledge of the future, since anybody with some intelligence could have figured out that making the boat defective will make it undesirable for the tyrannical king. Therefore, he says "I wanted/intended".</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And as for the youth, so his parents had faith, so we feared that he burdens/oppresses them with tyranny and unfaithfulness. So we wanted/intended that their Lord exchanges/substitutes for them better than him purification and nearer/closer in mercy/relation." [18:80-81]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the second incident, we see an abrupt change from the first person to "we feared" and "we wanted/intended". "We" refers to the servant and who? It cannot be The God since The God doesn't fear anything. Could it be the angels? Possibly, since the angels have the ability to see the future as clear from 2:30:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And when your Lord said to the angels: "That I am making/putting in the earth a successor/leader/replacement." They said: "Do you make/put in it, who corrupts in it and sheds the bloods, and/(while) we glorify with Your praise and we holy unto You." He said: "I know what you do not know." [2:30]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So in the second incident, it seems that the angels saw the future predominant outcomes as the youth being tyrannical and unfaithful. As in verse 2:30 when they feared that a new leader in the earth would in the future corrupt in it and shed the blood, they also feared that the youth would in the future burden the parents with tyranny and unfaithfulness.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And as for the wall, it belonged to two youths orphans in the town, and under it was a treasure for them, and their father was correct/righteous, so your Lord wanted/intended that they reach their maturity, and they bring out their treasure, mercy from your Lord, and I did not do it from my own matter/affair/decision. That is explanation/interpretation for what you were not able to have patience on." [18:82]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Finally, in the third incident, it is clear that in this case it was The God who wanted the servant to build the wall. Unlike the other actions, only this action of building the wall without expecting a reward was under orders from The God and was not out of the servant's own decision.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">So in the second incident, how could the angels see the future while at the same time we know that the youth has free choice? A new scientific theory that is called f-theory may help provide a possible answer to why foreknowledge of future outcomes and free choice are not mutually exclusive.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>HYPERTIME</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In this section, I will try to relate some of our findings so far in the Quran to some new scientific theories. Please do not consider this section as fact since we all know that scientific understanding changes constantly. Instead, please consider it as a brainstorming exercise.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As you may remember from the <a href="http://free-minds.org/free-choice">FREE CHOICE </a>article, the example of a decision tree was used to illustrate how we can simultaneously have free choice and for The God to know all future outcomes. Whenever I try to explain the concept of free choice to people, I draw that decision tree example on a sheet of paper (see Figure 2) and show that we have freedom at the nodes but no control over the outcomes/branches. Moreover, since we face new decisions and outcomes as time passes, we are being moved along the tree by the passage of time. Conceptually, when we make a decision, we are slightly bending the one-dimensional time line that we are tracing on the sheet of paper to follow a different path on the tree. For the 1D time to bend, it requires an additional "degree of freedom", or a 2D time plane to bend into. The 2D time "paper" already has all the possible paths and outcomes drawn on it, we don't "create" paths or outcomes but we simply choose a path. As clear from verses such as 39:42 and 62:8, the time of death is predistined, in other words it is already "drawn". One way we could look at time is to picture it as a record of our choices on the 2D time "paper". That record is currently being "written".</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/fig2.gif" style="width: 300px; height: 144px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>Figure 2. Time tracing on the 2D time plane</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">People who have a background in theoretical physics often ask me about how I reached this understanding. They are surprised to learn that this is my interpretation of the Quran, because those interpretations are in line with recent scientific theories about the universe. For example, string theory predicts a 10-dimensional universe where six of the dimensions are hidden while the other four dimensions (3D plus time) have been expanding since the big bang. Hypertime(3) is a technique used to resolve some of the problems with string theory by adding an extra time dimension. The theory is officially called f-theory(4).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">With one more time dimension, it might be possible to move diagonally such that if one sees an undesirable event looming in the future one might be able to side step it. If we had access to the extra time dimension and we don't like the outcome of the choice we made, we could potentially move sideways to the other paths that we didn't select. Perhaps this is how the angels saw the need to kill the youth in 18:80-81.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">If we had access to the hidden dimensions everything in this 3D universe would seem close by. It is interesting that one of the allegorical descriptions of heaven is that whatever we want in it is close by (see 55:54, 69:23). Those who go to heaven will be unrestricted (free) in getting the outcomes that they want (will), as clear from the following verse:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Treed gardens/paradises, they enter it, the rivers flow/run from below/beneath it, for them in it what they will/want, like that The God reimburses the forethoughtful. [16:31]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Therefore those who go to heaven will have "free will" as opposed to merely the "free choice" among a limited number of paths that we have in this low life.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now it is easy to understand why descriptions of heaven may be symbolic (like dreams). For example, try to explain to hypothetical 1D beings (that have 1D minds) that the infinitely expanding universe they live in is actually being traced on a 2D sheet and that there is a 3D world with 3D flowers 3D rivers that you can move sideways and up and down in (as if you are moving across multiple 1D universes in no time). Of course, it is impossible to explain such things using our 3D terminology to a 1D being. The best approach is to use allegories from his/her 1D world. Perhaps that is why the allegorical descriptions of heaven in the Quran sound like a nice dream.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">On the other hand, allegorical descriptions of hell sound like a nightmare. And while heaven seems like a place of "free will", hell seems to be a place of constraints (see verses such as 40:71, 76:4).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The straight path is the path that leads to the outcome of heaven.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE STRAIGHT PATH</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The straight path is the path of my Lord (see 11:56, 14:1, 43:52-53):</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Indeed I relied on The God, my Lord and your Lord, there is not a walker/creeper except He is taking with its forehead, that my Lord is on a straight path. [11:56]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">A L R a book We descended to you, to bring the people out from the darknesses to the light with their Lord's permission, to the path of The Glorious/Mighty, The Praise Worthy. [14:1]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">By choosing the straight path, we fulfill our covenant with The God:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Did I not make a covenant to you, Adam's descendants, that you do not serve the devil, he truly is for you a clear/evident enemy, and that you serve Me, that is a straight path? [36:60-61]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Indeed The God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him that is a straight path. [3:51]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And indeed The God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him that is a straight path. [19:36]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Indeed The God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him that is a straight path. [43:64]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">He said: "This is a path that is on me straight. My servants you have no authority over, except who follows you from the diverters. [15:41-42]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">How do we follow the straight path?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">151. Say: "Come I will read/recite what your Lord forbade on you, that do not make anything partner with Him, and with the parents kindness, and do not kill your unborn children from fear of hardship We provide for you and them, and do not approach/near the atrocious deeds, what is visible from it, and what is hidden, and do not kill the self that The God forbade, except with the truth, that He directed/commanded you with it, maybe you reason.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">152. And do not approach/near the orphan's property/possession except with what is best, until he reaches his maturity/strength, and fulfill the measure and the scale with the equitable, We do not burden a self except its capacity, and if you speak, so be just, and even if it was a relative/a near person, and fulfill The God's covenant; that He directed/commanded with, perhaps you remember.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">153. And that is My straight path, so follow it, and do not follow the paths, so they split you from His path, that He advises you with it, perhaps you be forethoughtful. [6:151-153]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The God guides with the Quran to the straight path:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And those who were given the knowledge see/understand that what was descended to you from your Lord is the truth and it guides to the path of The Glorious/Mighty, The Praise Worthy. [34:6]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">15. O people of the Book, our messenger had come to you, he clarifies to you much from what you were hiding from the Book, and He pardons much, a light and a clear Book had come to you from The God.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">16. The God guides with it who followed His approval to the secure ways, and brings them out from the darknesses to the light with His permission, and guides them to a straight path. [5:15-16]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Say: "Are there from your partners (with The God) who guides to the truth?" Say: "The God guides to the truth. Is who guides to the truth more credible that He be followed or who does not guide except that he be guided, so what is the matter with how you judge?" [10:35]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As we saw in the FREE CHOICE study, specifically who The God guides to the straight path is not predestined and is conditional on what choices one makes in this low life. Also, as we saw from THE TRUST study "salat" helps us connect what we say and do with our purpose in life and part of "salat" is understanding the Quran to guide us to the straight path.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Compare the above clear Quranic evidence to what Sunnis and Shias believe about the straight path. The following are English and Arabic examples of lies about the straight path from the tyrannical books ("Taghoot") of Muslim, Bukhari and Ahmed:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Example from "taghoot" of Muslim (English) - Arabic original</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Example from "taghoot" of Bukhari (English) - Arabic original</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Example from "taghoot" of Ahmed (Arabic)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Example from "taghoot" of Ahmed (Arabic)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Sunni hadiths contend that the straight path is like a high wire act set up over hell. People pass over it according to their deeds: the first of them as fast as lighting, then as fast as wind, then as fast as birds, and then as fast as a running man. Some of them will come crawling, while others trip into hell. The Prophet will be standing on the path interceding for people whose deeds will fall short. Unfortunately, the Shia don't fare any better than the Sunnis. It is mentioned in the Shia hadith books that Ali is the "Path". In another Shia tradition, the leaders ("imams") of the "Ahl al-Bayt" are reported to have stated: "We are the Path".</p> <p class="text-align-justify">From 7:16, it is clear that the devil's only objective is to divert us from the straight path:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">He (the devil) said: "So for what you tempted me, I will block/obstruct for them Your straight path." [7:16]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Indeed, the devil has succeeded in blocking those who chose to listen to him from even understanding what the straight path is.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The following verses help establish the motivation for any past, present, and future studies of the Quran, as well as the limits of what can be achieved from such efforts:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And We had brought to them a Book that We detailed with knowledge, guidance and mercy to people who have faith. [7:52]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Do they wait/watch except for its original/primary meaning ("Ta'awiluh")? The day its original/primary meaning comes, those who forgot it from before say: "Our Lord's messengers had come with the truth. So are there for us from intercessors, so they intercede for us, or we be returned so we do other than what we were doing?" They had lost themselves, and what they were fabricating was misguided/wasted/lost from them. [7:53]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The word "Ta'awiluh" in 7:53 comes from the root "AWaL" and it signifies the "original intended meaning", or in other words the "100% true interpretation."</p> <p class="text-align-justify">A long time ago, the classical scholars dealt with all the concepts that we covered so far. Unfortunately, the classical scholars whose work is known and respected by most Sunnis and Shia today didn't cover any of those concepts from the Quran. Instead, they discarded the Quran and essentially got their explanation from hadith. Finally, the classical scholars labeled this as the true original meaning that The God intended. This closed the door on further study of those concepts from the Quran. Since then, the Quran has been practically forgotten as the source of true knowledge about those concepts and we have been stuck with the fabricated hadith-based interpretation.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As clear from 7:53, explanations based on religious fabrications will be wasted/lost on the ending day. Today, many Sunnis have absolute faith in those non-Quranic explanations that are claimed to be the original 100% true interpretation. They forget that the absolute truth in the Quran cannot be explained by anything less than itself. Also, the Quran is like nature, we can never understand its 100% true meaning and we can only try to continuously improve our understanding of it and I certainly hope that our children will develop a better understanding then us. Therefore, my objective in writing this is not to claim that my personal interpretation is absolutely correct, but to show that anybody may arrive at a better understanding by simply listening directly to the Quran. This, I hope, will contribute to opening the door for further widespread study of the Quran.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">During this study, we tried to find more information from the Quran about the hidden side. One creature that may have special access to the hidden side is mentioned in Chapter 18 during the journey of Moses, just before he meets the God's servant:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">60. And when Moses said to his youth, I will not leave/quit until I reach the two seas'/oceans'/rivers' place of meeting, or I continue a long period of time.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">61. So when they reached a place of meeting between them, they forgot their whale/dolphin, so it took/accepted its way in the sea/ocean/river as a mirage.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">62. So when they crossed/passed through he said to his youth: "Bring us our lunch, we had met/found fatigue from our journey."</p> <p class="text-align-justify">63. He said: "Did you see/understand when we took refuge to the rock, so that I forgot the whale/dolphin and none made me forget that I remember it except the devil, and it took/accepted its way in the sea/ocean/river amazingly."</p> <p class="text-align-justify">64. He said: "That is what we were seeking." So they returned on their tracks/marks following/tracking. [18:60-64]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Surprisingly, scientists recently discovered that the eyes of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) have retinas that contain iron (magnetite) and are sensitive to magnetic fields. There is mounting evidence that whales and dolphins can detect and respond to minute local variations in the magnetic field of the earth. For example, magnetic field contours usually run parallel to the shoreline. Whale strandings seem to occur in unusual areas where magnetic field contours are perpendicular to the shoreline and are also correlated with irregular changes in the magnetic field(5). Cetaceans seem like especially intelligent creatures. For example, the dolphin's brain size is almost equal to that of a human. Also, the dolphin has two sub brains. One brain sleeps while the other brain stays awake in an alternating manner(6). This way the dolphin may be always dreaming and awake at the same time. Thus, it seems that the whale/dolphin in 18:60-64 may have special significance that we can't yet understand.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another verse that I have been trying to understand is part of the story of Dawood and Soloman in Chapter 34. The verse seems to talk about what is perhaps an advanced manufacturing process:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">That make/work "sabighat" (flowing?) and destine/measure in the "sard" (the plentiful?) and make/do correct/righteous deeds, that I am with what you make/do seeing/knowing [34:11]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Although we may not understand the meaning of this manufacturing process yet, I think that there is an important lesson to be learned from this verse. For a small community without a large labor pool to quickly thrive and have influence, it must focus its efforts on high-value added scientific activities that can lead to significant innovations and superior technologies. This rapid and groundbreaking progress in how to work with nature for the benefit of humankind cannot be achieved with low value-add activities. Some technologies that may be key to the next leap in human progress include quantum computers, nanotechnology, and antigravity/gravity-shielding.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">...my Lord, increase me in knowledge [20:114]</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <p class="text-align-justify">IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This is the book, no doubt, in it guidance for the forethoughtful. [2:2]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Tomorrow, I will try to improve my understanding of the Quran and the universe, except if The God wills and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality. This article reflects my personal interpretation of the Quranic verses as of February 5th, 2003. Please be humble by following the example set by the angels in 2:32, verify all information within for yourself as commanded in 17:36, and remember that simply "none" is the forethoughtful answer to 45:6.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <p class="text-align-justify">Endnotes</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(1) Physics Today, April 1990.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(2) Cecilia Algarín et al.,"Does early iron deficency anemia interfere with childhood REM sleep organization patterns?" Actas de Fisiología 7, 2001.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(3) Gabrielle Walker, "Here Comes Hypertime," New Scientist, November 1997.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(4) Cumrun Vafa, "Evidence for f-theory", Nucl.Phys.1996, 403-418.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(5) Margaret Klinowska, "No Through Road for the Misguided Whale," New Scientist, February 12, 1987.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(6) Carol Howard, Dolphin Chronicles, 1996.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">By Ayman (<a href="mailto:drayman@fast-email.com">drayman@fast-email.com</a>)</p> </div> Sat, 27 Aug 2011 10:16:26 +0000 admin 105 at https://free-minds.org The Physics of the Day of Judgement https://free-minds.org/physics-day-judgement <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Physics of the Day of Judgement</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-27T09:57:14+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 08/27/2011 - 17:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/j-day.jpg?itok=1axvjBSY" width="186" height="139" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><ul><li class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 50, Verse: 47 When we are dead and have become dust and bones Shall then we indeed be raised again?</li> <li class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 75, Verses: 3 &amp; 4 Man thinks that, We shall not assemble his bones Yes Truly! We are able to restore his very fingers!</li> <li class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 22, Verse: 7 The Hour will come there is no doubt And God will raise those who are in the graves.</li> </ul><p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE AFTERLIFE </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The belief in life after death is universal; it is reflected in the teachings of all the major religions of the world, permeating culture and time. Despite tremendous scientific and technological advancement of the twentieth century, we have no answers to many questions that have plagued the minds of people from time immemorial. What happens to us on dying? What is soul? Does it leave the body to enter the spiritual world, which is beyond human perception in some other dimension? Are the souls reincarnated entering some other body to be recycled again as in the beliefs of some eastern religions? Is the soul captured and kept somewhere until the Day of Judgment to be reunited with the body that rises from the grave? How can a body that had decayed and disappeared into dust, regain its original shape and form? We can believe what we wish, however the modern world is based on truthful pursuit of science and technology. Truth cannot be decided on wishful thinking or majority vote, if that was the case then Columbus would have surely fallen of the earth in 1492.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><!--break--></p> <p class="text-align-justify">We live in a world that demands proof and is not just content with belief. The belief or even the proof however, is only for the believer, and belief comes from within our hearts. Even the greatest of proofs will not satisfy the non-believer, while the slightest evidence can be a great source of satisfaction for the believer. In this context let us look at the story of Prophet Ibrahim (peace be on him) given in the Quran. (Chapter ii verse 260.) Prophet Ibrahim wanted to know how God gives life to the dead. He had the faith of a man who was willing to sacrifice his own son for the sake of God, yet he wanted reassurance; which then was given to him in the form of a great miracle. Ordinary people like us are also in need of reassurance in a world where science and technology have assumed greater importance than religion. The Muslims are very fortunate in this respect as they posses the final revelation the Quran, a miracle for all times.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <p class="text-align-justify">There is only one version of the Quran and it is the only religious book that even the critics of Islam admit was never altered since its revelation to Prophet Mohammed (Pbuh) fourteen hundred years ago. Scientific advancements have provided better understanding of many Quranic verses that may have appeared obscure in the past. The Quran accurately describes a variety of scientific facts that were discovered in the last one hundred years. This is one of the reasons that the Quran stands far above other religious books in its authority as a truly revealed book.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Quran in many verses describes the future of the universe and The Day of Judgment. The verses appear to depict some great final catastrophe that will affect the whole universe. Many chapters mention the final earthquake, the opening of gates in the sky and "a time" in which mankind will see what they had done before so that they will become witnesses against their own selves.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In this article I explore the similarities between the Quranic description of The Day of Judgment and some theories of cosmology that predict reversal of time in the future with the beginning of the contraction phase of the universe. You will be surprised to learn that the religious contention that man will rise from the grave is not a myth or wishful thinking but is based on real scientific principles. I would like to however caution the reader that scientific ideas keep on changing, and my presentation here does not in any way mean that this is the only way for mankind to come back alive. God has absolute power and when He wishes something to happen IT IS.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>IS RESURRECTION A PHYSICAL PROCESS? </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 35, Verse: 9 It is God, Who sends the winds and they raise a cloud Then leads it to a dead land and revives The earth after its death, Such is the Resurrection</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The raising of clouds and the growth of plants following rain indeed appear miraculous and were considered as such in the past. Now we understand these as due to various natural laws. In the Quran the resurrection is compared to the physical processes such as the growth of plants after rain; this suggest that revival after death is also based on some physical laws created by God.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Following are the main themes of the Day of Judgment that are described in the Quran: (1): The final earthquake and the transformation of the earth into a hollow sphere. (2): Rising from the grave. (3): A time when our hands feet and tongue will become witnesses against us. (4): Opening of gates in the sky, through which every one will be removed to some other higher dimensions beyond the dying universe.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">All of the above events can be explained on the basis of reversal of time and the accompanying reversal of gravity which the physicists believe, has to happen if the time is going to reverse. Sometimes in the future the knowledge of the Day of Judgment that is given in the Quran might become widely known and accepted as the truth.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 41: verse 53 We shall show them our signs on the horizons and within themselves Until it will become apparent to them, that it is the truth Is your Lord not sufficient since He is witness over all things?</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>AN INTRODUCTION TO COSMOLOGY </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">To understand how the future of the universe is linked to the Day of Judgment, some knowledge of cosmology is essential. In the next few pages we will learn, how the universe began, what it is like now and what are the possibilities in the future.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Our solar system consists of earth and eight other planets that are orbiting around a star that we call the sun. The sun, along with two hundred billion other stars, comprises our galaxy "The Milky Way." The galaxies are shaped roughly like a disc, with the stars orbiting at various distances around a large central mass.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE LIGHT YEAR </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The universe is so vast that the distances between stars and galaxies have to be measured in "light years." A light year is the distance traveled by light in a year, at the speed of three hundred thousand kilometers per second. The distance between the earth and the sun is only eight minutes at the speed of light. Compared to this, the nearest star from the earth other than our sun, is four light years away. The galaxy we live in, "The Milky Way," is one hundred and fifty thousand light years across. This means that traveling at the speed of light, it would take one hundred and fifty thousand years to go from one side of Milky Way to the other. The galaxies on the average are separated from each other by ten million light years. Many hundred billion such galaxies are part of the truly gigantic universe.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 40, Verse: 57 The creation of the heavens and the earth Is definitely a greater thing than creation of mankind, However, most of mankind knows not</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE RECEDING GALAXIES </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The galaxies other than our "Milky Way" are moving away from us at tremendous speeds. This can be ascertained, by analyzing the light given off by the galaxies, by an instrument called the spectroscope. The more distant a galaxy is the greater is its speed of recession. This motion of the galaxies is due to the expansion of the universe. The universe began about fifteen to twenty billion years ago with a tremendous explosion called "The big bang" and has been expanding ever since. The universe is not just a sphere of galaxies rushing away from each other into unending emptiness of space. It can be compared to a balloon with many dots on it, each representing a galaxy. However, the surface of this balloon, which is two dimensional, represents all three dimensions of our space, and is expanding into a higher dimension, that is beyond our imagination.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE FUTURE OF THE UNIVERSE </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">It is not known if the universe will expand forever, or if one day it will begin to contract. In either case, the future of all the inhabitants of the universe could be rather bleak. If the expansion continues, after billions of years, all the energy of the sun and stars will be exhausted and every living thing will freeze to death. Eventually, only the expanding emptiness will remain. Alternatively if there is enough mass in the universe, gravity will one day stop the expansion and then contraction will begin. A contracting universe would ultimately end in a very hot and compressed state called "The Big Crunch." This would also destroy all life forms, as we know them.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Besides the above two depressing and purposeless scenarios of the future, there is an another possibility. Some physicists feel that time may reverse when the universe begins contracting. This prospect has a striking resemblance to the Quranic description of the Day of Judgment.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE FUTURE OF THE UNIVERSE AS DESCRIBED IN THE QURAN </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now, let us turn our attention to the verses in the Quran that describe the beginning, the expansion and eventually the contraction of the universe. There is marked similarity between the Quranic revelation and recent discoveries in cosmology. The Quranic verses however, go far beyond modern cosmology in describing the future of the universe. The Quran gives us insight into laws of the universe that are yet to be discovered, the laws of the contracting universe.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE BIG BANG </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The universe came into existence billions of years ago with a tremendous explosion called "The big bang." This is clearly mentioned in the Quran in the following verses:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 21, Verse: 30 Have not "those who disbelieve" known That heavens and earth were of one piece, We parted them and, We made every living thing of water Will they not then believe?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The discovery of "The Big Bang" and that of "The aquatic origin of life" was made by the non-Muslims, ("those who disbelieve"). When the universe began all matter and space (heavens) was at one point (one piece). Then everything was separated in what the physicists describe as "The big bang." The evidence that the universe began in the "The big bang" is so overwhelming that it is now considered a fact and not just a theory.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Universe has been expanding since its creation. Hubbell, an astronomer made this great discovery, in the early part of this century. It was also predicted by Einstein's theory of "General Relativity." The expansion of the universe is clearly mentioned in the following Quranic verses:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 51, Verse: 47 The heavens, We have built with power and, We are expanding it.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE CONTRACTION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE REVERSAL OF TIME </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Time is one of the most elusive mysteries of the universe. No one knows what time really is. Albert Einstein explained time by saying that time is something that we measure with the clock. Time passes slowly within objects moving at speeds close to that of light and stops altogether at the speed of light. Time also slows near massive objects like earth, sun, very dense stars called the neutron stars, and almost stops inside the super massive stars “the black holes.” Time has a direction, it always moves towards the future. We see rain falling from the sky, objects breaking up, people getting older, and people dying. We do not see a glass becoming "unbroken" or anyone returning from the dead. That could happen only if time ran backwards. Some physicists like Michael Berry, Thomas Gold, and Steven Hawking have proposed that time may reverse when the universe begins to contract. Verses in the Quran suggest that one day the universe will start contracting and this will coincide with beginning of the Day of Judgment.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 21, Verse: 104 "The day" when, We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolls up a written scroll. As, We began the first creation We shall repeat it.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the above verse, "The Day" means The Day of Judgment and the contraction of the universe, is compared to the closing of a scroll. This is when time may reverse. Reversal of time will cause man to rise from his grave and again become alive. Every event will be replayed again as everything has been recorded in time.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 45, Verse: 29 This book pronounces against you with truth We have caused (all) you did to be recorded. (In time)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 27, Verse: 75 And there is nothing hidden in the heavens, Or the earth, but it is a clear record. (In time)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As the history of earth runs backwards through time, nations will return one after another. All the good and evil deeds of the individual as well as that of the nations will become completely apparent as time reversal occurs.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 45, Verse: 28 (time reversal) And you will see each nation humbled, each nation called to its record. And it will be said to them: This day you are repaid for what you used to do</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The playing back of time will cause people to see what they had done previously. They will have no control over their hands, feet, mouths, and eyes. All the wrong and right things that were done before by them will be repeated again. In this sense, the mouths, hands, and feet, will become witnesses against them in front of the angels and God, and they will not be able to deny any of their wrong doings.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 24, Verse: 24 (time reversal) On the day when their tongues and their hands and their feet Testify against them as to what they used to do</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 78, Verse: 40 We warn you of doom at hand. A day when a man will look on that his own hand has sent before, and the non-believers will cry: "Wish that we were dust”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 77, Verse: 11 And, the messengers are brought into their time appointed (The prophets will be returned into their time as time runs backwards</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>NO FREE WILL IN THE CONTRACTING UNIVERSE </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Man is given a free will to choose between right and wrong in the expanding universe, that is, when all his deeds are recorded in time. In the contracting universe, there will be no free will, and no one will have power to harm or do good to others, or change anything that he has done in his previous life.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 82, Verse: 19 A day when no soul has power at all Over any other soul, The absolute command on that day is God's</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>REVERSAL OF GRAVITY </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 99, Verse: 1 When earth is shaken with her final earthquake</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Gravity is due to minute differences in time at different heights. Time passes at a slightly faster rate at the top of a mountain, as compared to the sea level. This difference in time, although imperceptible to us, is enough to make things fall to earth, and can be measured with the aid of atomic clocks. If time reverses in the contracting phase of the universe, then this time difference will also reverse. This will cause gravity to reverse so that everything will fall upwards, producing an earthquake of a magnitude never seen before. The earth along with the mountains will be suddenly lifted up from under our feet and subsequently come crashing down.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 69, Verses: 13 &amp; 14 When the trumpet is blown one blast The earth with the mountains Shall be lifted and crushed with one crash</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The reversal of gravity will cause the earth to literally explode and turn inside out. The mountains will fall apart. The red-hot lava will be thrown out lighting up the sky like molten copper</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 70: verse 8 When the sky will be like molten copper And the hills will be like flakes of wool</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>EARTH: "EMPTY" FROM INSIDE WITH THE SKY IN ITS CENTER </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 84, Verses: 3 &amp; 4 And when the earth is spread out And casts out all that was in her and is “Empty.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The reversal of gravity will cause earth to expand outwards, throwing out all of its insides. The mass of the earth however, will not disperse, as reversal of time will be directing all the matter to return to its previous position in time. Thus, time and gravity will become two opposing forces in the contracting universe. A balance between these two forces will change the earth into a large sphere, empty from inside. The position of the sky will translocate so that it will occupy the center of the hollowed earth.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 14, Verse: 48 On the day when the earth will be changed Other than this earth and the heavens also And they will come forth unto God, The One The Almighty.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE SMOOTH OUTER SURFACE OF THE EARTH </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The inner surface of the hollowed earth will be the exact-replica of the present day earth as time plays backwards. However, the outer surface of the earth will be made from the liquid lava that is at the present time inside the earth, thus it will become smooth without any mountains, hills, valleys or any kind of unevenness.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 20 verses 105-107 They will ask about the mountains, Say: My Lord will break them into scattered dust And leave it (earth) as an empty plane, So you see neither curve nor ruggedness.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The following verses describe the Day of Judgment in a comprehensive manner. The Day of Judgment will start with the final earthquake as gravity reverses. The reversal of gravity will cause the earth to throw out all that was once inside her, thereby becoming, completely empty. The hollowed earth will have the sky towards its center. The people will begin to rise from the graves coming back alive, one after another, "in scattered groups". The history of nations will be played back with the reversal of time. Nations as well as people will be totally powerless caught in the backward flow of time. They will helplessly reenact and witness their own deeds of the past. This drama will continue until each one of us is removed to the beyond.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 99: Earthquake verses 1-6 When earth is shaken with her final earthquake. And earth yields its burdens. (From within And man says what's wrong with her That day she will relate her History (in time) Because your Lord inspires her That day mankind will issue forth In scattered groups to be shown their deeds</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>WILL WE REGRESS TO NOTHINGNESS WITH THE REVERSAL OF TIME? </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">To an inquiring mind, it may occur that the reversal of time can lead to the resurrection from the grave. If this process remained unchecked then we will continue to grow younger, pass through our childhood and regress into nothingness in our mother’s wombs. This is also what time reversal theories say, again a purposeless exercise. Well not quite so! The thought of the great and final earthquake may instill fear into our hearts, but the real purpose is to make the higher dimensions accessible for escape from the collapsing universe. God has designed the universe with great precision. After the resurrection, arrangements have been made, to escape the unrelenting effect of time reversal, to beyond this universe.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 10, Verse: 45 On that Day, He shall gather them together It will seem as if they have stayed (in the grave) for an hour, recognizing one another. Those who were not guided and denied the meeting with God will perish.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE HIGHER DIMENSIONS </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Mathematically there are an infinite number of dimensions. However we only live in a three dimensional space. Every object in our daily lives has a length, width, and height. The concept that there are more than three dimensions is impossible to imagine. However, higher dimensions do exist as intense gravity near the sun causes the space to curve in an extra higher dimension. Einstein considered this for the first time and was able to accurately calculate the orbit of the inner planet Mercury. Einstein's theory of general relativity is based on the concept of higher dimensions.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We may gain some insight into the concept of higher dimensions by studying the problems faced by people in the past. There was a time when people believed that the earth is flat. They were afraid of the possibility of falling off the earth if they traveled too far. This cannot happen because the surface of the earth is curved and continuous like that of a sphere. To get off the earth we just need to move in a dimension (direction) that is perpendicular to the surface. That is straight up, from anywhere we are. We face a similar conceptual problem in understanding the higher dimensions. We may imagine that we can leave the universe only by traveling very far, but that is also not true. Even if we traveled billions of miles, we will remain within the confines of our three dimensional space.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 72, Verse: 12 We know that we cannot escape from God In the earth, nor can we escape by flight</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The only way to go beyond the universe is by moving into a higher dimension in a direction that is perpendicular to our three dimensional space, right from where we are. In the present expanding universe this is not possible, as our space is not continuous with the higher dimensions. For that to happen, our space will have to literally be torn apart first and then be connected to the higher dimensions. Can this happen in the center of the black holes?</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>THE BLACK HOLES: “THE BLOCKED GATEWAYS" TO THE HIGHER DIMENSIONS </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 78, Verse: 19 And heaven is opened and becomes as gates</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The opening of gates in the sky is a concept similar to that of black holes. Such openings can be the gateways to beyond the universe through the higher dimensions. Massive stars, which collapse inward under their own weight, can form black holes. Gravity in such objects is so strong that even light cannot escape and they become invisible. Hence, the name black holes. Some physicists believe that space-time may be ripped apart in the black holes, producing gateways to beyond this universe. The curvature producing mass of the black hole however also blocks the opening, thus preventing anything from escaping to the higher dimensions.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the contracting universe, this problem should not exist. The reversal of gravity in the contracting phase will change all the heavenly bodies into massive hollow structures just as described in the Quran. These hollow structures will have empty skies in their center where even the reversed gravity of relatively lighter objects like earth, will have a run away effect. This will cause the fabric of space-time to be torn apart, forming portals or gateways to the higher dimensions</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 69, Verse: 16 The heavens will split asunder, For that day, it will be frail.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Mankind will see many strange things in the contracting universe that may cause confusion, (When sight is confounded.) One of these is the rising of sun from the west, which is mentioned, in an authentic hadith. This phenomenon due to the reversal of time will be visible briefly as the Day of Judgment begins. This will be immediately followed by the final earthquake, which will change the earth into a hollow structure; from within which both the sun and the moon will not be visible. (The moon is eclipsed.) The gateways to beyond the universe will form in the center-sky, and may appear as a bright light constantly shining from straight above. This may cause us to wonder weather the sun and the moon have become one: (The sun and moon are united). This dilemma is probably mentioned in the following verses.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 75, verses 7, 8, 9 When sight is confounded, And the moon is eclipsed (hidden from view) And sun and moon are united. (Appear as one light)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The stars will stop shining as the light moves back with reversal of time. They will also be hidden from view from within the hollowed earth.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 78, Verse: 8 When the stars are put out.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>ANGELS DESCEND THROUGH THE GATES IN THE SKY </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 25, Verse: 25 A day when the heavens and the clouds will be rent Asunder and the angels will be sent down "A grand descent</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As the gates open in the center-sky of the earth in the contracting universe, a spectacular site will be seen as thousands of angels descend down to accomplish the task assigned to them on the Day of Judgment.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 18, Verse: 47 Think of the day when, We remove the hills, And you see the earth emerging and We gather them together, not one will be overlooked.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The collapsing universe will ultimately be destroyed in a fireball which physicists call the "Big Crunch." Everyone will be gathered much before that time comes and no one will be left behind. The angels of “The grand descent” may accomplish the gathering and removal of humans to “The beyond”. Anyone remaining behind could regress to nothingness, as time will be running backwards.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 84, Verse: 19 That you shall "ride" on from plane to plane</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In our final journey through the gates that will open in the center sky, we may cross many planes or dimensions. The word “ride” is used in the Quran, as if this journey will be accomplished by riding on "something."</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As we leave this universe we may be collected together on some vast plane in an another dimension, every one will come from all times and places in history to face the judgment of their deeds and heaven and hell</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>WHEN WILL THE DAY OF JUDGMENT ARRIVE </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 33, Verse: 63 Men ask you of the Hour. Say the knowledge of it is with God only. What can convey to you that may be the Hour is near.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 29, Verse: 53 They bid you to hasten on the doom. And if a term had not been appointed, The doom would have definitely come on them. And it will come upon them suddenly When they perceive not.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Superficially, it seems that if we knew the rate at which the expansion of the universe is slowing, then we should be able to predict when the Day of Judgment will begin. However, if time is related to the expansion of space, we cannot observe the slowing of the expansion. This would be like attempting to measure the speed of a car with a clock that is connected to its wheels, so that the speed of time would depend on the speed of the car. If the car slowed-down the time will also slowdown and speed of the car would always appear the same. Similarly as the expansion of the universe slows our time and our motion will also slowdown and the rate of expansion, will appear the same.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 53, Verses: 57, 58, 59 The threatened hour is near. None beside God can disclose it Are you surprised then at this statement?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Even the most advanced civilization in the universe would always observe that the universe is expanding at the same steady rate with which it started. Paradoxically the far-reaches of space may even seem to expand faster when measurements are made with our local slowing time. The nature of time is such that slowing of time also cannot be perceived. This of course means that the beginning of the Day of Judgment cannot be predicted and may come at any time. Only God, who is independent of time, knows of the real timing of the Day of Judgment.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>WAITING IN THE GRAVE FOR DAY OF JUDGMENT TO ARRIVE? </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the Quran, the soul is compared to consciousness and death is compared to sleep. Once death overcomes us there is no perception of the passage of time and the next thing we see will be the Day of Judgment.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 30, Verses: 55 &amp; 56 And on The Day when the Hour arrives the guilty will swear that they Remained (dead) but for an hour, thus they were ever deceived But to those to whom knowledge and faith are given will say: ”The truth is that you have remained (dead) until the Day of Resurrection By God's decree. This is the Day of Resurrection, but you used not to know.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">On The Day of Judgment, the reality of afterlife and the true religion Islam will become clear to everyone. Those who had indulged in evil deeds and followed false beliefs will wish that they had never existed; but they will have to face the final justice. May God have mercy on all of us.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter: 45 Verse: 27 To God belongs the Sovereignty of heavens and the earth On the Day when the Hour rises, Who follow falsehood will be lost.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>SUMMARY </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">With the tremendous scientific advancements of the twentieth century, we have placed our trust in science and technology to solve all our problems. Dazzled by the ability of technology to produce quick results, our faith in God has become weak. Our actions are for worldly goals, although a stronger belief in God and fear of accountability in the afterlife could make us better people. We can see the consequences of lacking these in the moral decay that is afflicting many societies all over the world.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">God has sent guidance to human beings according to the conditions existing at that moment in history. When the Pharaohs ruled, magic was a very popular pastime. Then Moses (Peace be on him: Pbuh) came with miracles from God and defeated the magicians of the Pharaoh's court. The people at the time of Jesus (Pbuh) were similarly deep into miracles, and we can see that the life of Jesus (Pbuh) is full of miracles. When Mohammad (Pbuh) came, the Arabic language and poetry was at the height of its development. The Quran with its clear message was revealed in the most eloquent poetry with a style unique and unmatched.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, the Quran is a miracle and guidance for all times, therefore it is only appropriate to believe that it may be the source of the most exciting discoveries of the age of science. Science, with help from the Quran may discover what religion has maintained all along, that rising from the grave is going to happen.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">There are many theories about the future of the universe. Despite a great deal of knowledge, scientists are unable to decide which one of these is correct. The belief that the universe has a purpose and the knowledge given in the Quran, may be the best guide in our search for the truth. Hopefully Muslims will be in the forefront any such future discoveries.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Many verses in the Quran describe the Day of Judgment. We live in a universe that has been expanding since its creation billions of years ago. Both the birth of the universe with the "Big Bang" and its expansion are described in the Quran. Scientists do not know if the expansion will continue forever, or if one day the universe will begin to contract. However, the Quranic verses suggest that the universe will not expand forever and that the Day of Judgment will begin with the contraction of the universe. It appears that time and gravity will reverse when the universe begins to contract. Reversal of time will bring about the resurrection from the grave. In this time reversed world we will come across all the good and evil that we did in our lives. Reversal of gravity will be the cause of the final earthquake, mentioned in the Quran. This will change the earth so that it will be turned inside out and be transformed into a giant hollow sphere with the sky towards its center. The reversed gravity focused towards the "earth's center-sky" will have a runaway effect on space. The space in the center-sky will be literally torn apart to produce openings or gates to the higher dimensions that are beyond our universe. Through these openings, we will be removed from the collapsing universe.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Everyone will be taken away to escape the unrelenting effect of time reversal that could regress us to nothingness in our mother's wombs. In some higher dimension or plane mankind will be brought together from all times and places in history, to face the judgment for their deeds and hell or heaven.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">From the Quran, it appears that the timing of the Day of Judgment will never be known and it may come at any time. We should be aware that The Day of Judgment is very near to every one of us as there is no perception of passage of time after death.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Chapter 50 Verse 19 &amp; 20 The agony of death comes in truth; this is what you wished to avoid, And the trumpet is blown; this is the threatened Day.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As we go through our daily life we should keep in mind that everything big and small that we do is being recorded in time. If we do not take steps to protect ourselves from evil, in addition to the threat of severe punishment, we stand the chance of great embarrassment on the Day of Judgment. The reversal of time will expose all our secrets.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">I hope this article will serve as a source of warning as well as encouragement to the believers. They will realize that, The Day of Judgment is a religious, scientific and mathematical truth, which every one will have to face; and our deeds in this world will determine our fate in the eternal life. There is no doubt however, that the real knowledge of the Day of Judgment is with Allah only.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The non-Muslims hopefully, will appreciate that the religion of Islam is more than just another belief and they will be stimulated to further investigate the world of Islam.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <p class="text-align-justify">A book by the same author,</p> <p class="text-align-justify">“Resurrection of Mankind Through the Reversal of Time,” is available from the bazaar at <a href="http://www.islamicity.com/bazar/">www.islamicity.com/bazar/</a></p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">Dr. Mohammad Humayoun Khan. Illinois USA (Email: <a href="mailto:noor99@aol.com">noor99@aol.com</a>)</p> </div> Sat, 27 Aug 2011 09:57:14 +0000 admin 104 at https://free-minds.org Magic! https://free-minds.org/magic <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Magic!</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/science" hreflang="en">Science</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-27T09:07:47+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 08/27/2011 - 17:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/witchcraft.jpg?itok=SuWaqMuW" width="138" height="141" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Many people from different religions, including Sunnism, believe in magic. Some even go as far as saying that there is good magic and bad magic and they believe that the "good" magic will benefit them. The following is an example of a Bukhari Hadith where Sunnis get such views:</p> <blockquote><p> <em>The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7: #671: </em><em>Narrated Saad:</em><br /><em>"Whoever takes seven 'Ajwa dates in the morning will not be effected by magic or poison on that day."</em> </p></blockquote> <p>The above Hadith is repeated many times in slightly different forms in both the books of Bukhari and Muslim and is thus considered amongst the highly authentic Hadiths (For example, see The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7: #356 - The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7: #663 - The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7: #664 - The Book of Muslim, Book 023: #5081).<br /> When one attempts to expose the clear falsehood of such Hadiths, the popular Sunni reply is that they believe in magic because it is in the Quran and they quote verse 2:102 to support this view. Some even go as far a saying that magic is like technology to primitive people. Before accepting the Sunni view on magic, it is worth checking for oneself what the Quran says about this subject.<br /> Here is the interpretation of verse 2:102:<br /> And they followed what the devils recite regarding Solomon's kingship. Solomon did not reject, but the devils rejected by teaching the people the magic and what was descended on the two kings Harut and Marut at Babylon. They do not teach anyone until they say: "We are but a test, so do not reject". So they learn from them what they separate with between the person and his mate, and they are not harming with it anyone except with The God's permission. And they learn what harms them and does not benefit them, and they have known that for who bought it, there is no share of happiness in the ending, and miserable indeed is what they bought with themselves, if they were knowing. [2:102]<br /> Verse 2:102 doesn't define what magic is. It simply says that the devils (which can be human or jinn) teach people two things: Magic and what was descended on two Babylonian kings. From the verse, it is not possible to tell which thing (magic or what was descended on the two kings) is what they use to try to separate couples. However, as clear from the verse, both of the things they learned cannot benefit the people who learned it. So what other verses in the Quran can help us understand the definition of magic?<br /> He said: "Throw." So when they threw, they bewitched/tricked the people's eyes/sights and they terrified them, and they came with great magic. [7:116]<br /> If The God refers to the magic in 7:116 as "great" then it must really have been extraordinary by any standard. However, according to 7:116 even such "great" magic is nothing but tricking the people's eyes, in other words it is not real.<br /> Verse 20:66 confirms that unlike technology, magic is not real, it is only an illusion of the eyes:<br /> He said: "Rather you throw." So then their ropes and their sticks gave him the illusion, because of their magic, that they are moving [20:66]<br /> Even the rejecters know deep inside that magic is only trickery and is not real, thus they reject The God's message because they think it is only a trick:<br /> They would have said: "But our eyes/sights got confused, but we are a bewitched nation. [15:15]<br /> Their hearts/minds are being distracted and they secretly conspire, those who caused injustice/oppression (say): 'Is that except a human similar to you? Do you get the magic while you are seeing?' [21:3]<br /> So when Moses came to them with Our clear evidences/signs, they said: 'What is that except fabricated magic, and We did not hear about that in our primitive forefathers.' [28:36]<br /> Thus The God refutes the rejecters on judgment day by telling them that what they are seeing is real not magic:<br /> So is that magic? Or you do not see? [52:15]<br /> Technology succeeds in changing people's lives and making it better. On the other hand, because magic is only a visual illusion that tricks the eye, it doesn't succeed in changing anything in reality. Hence, even children know that a circus magician doesn't really make a handkerchief disappear out of this universe.<br /> Moses Said: "Do you say to the truth when it came to you, 'is that magic?'" while the magicians do not succeed. [10:77]<br /> 'And throw what is in your right hand, it snatches quickly what they made, truly they made a magician's plot, and the magician does not succeed when he gets.' [20:69]<br /> Of course, some aspects of technology make use of "eye trickery" like magic. For example, interlaced TV relies on eye trickery to deceive us into thinking that the picture is continuous. Similarly, shuttered glasses in Virtual Reality environments deceive us into thinking that we are seeing a 3D object. However, even in those cases, the technology itself (the TV and the shuttered glasses) is real not magic.<br /> As a result of Bukhari and other Hadith superstitions, many Sunnis believe that magical miracles can be performed through saintly people ("awliyaa"). They use the Quran for superstitious rituals and recite some verses or chapters a certain number of times thinking that it wards off magic or that it helps them get what they want. Absurd ceremonies such as exorcism and "ruqyah" are bought to cure illnesses or ward off evil (For example, see The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7, #633).<br /> Indeed, as narrated in verse 2:102, a multitude of devilish Sunni scholars have sold many books and tapes teaching cures for bad magic and instructing in the so-called good magic ("alsihr alhalal") and they are bestsellers among Sunnis. Consequently, many Sunnis believe that magic spells (a'amal) can help them or hurt them and thus they spend a lot of money and effort on buying spells and counter-spells.<br /> ..and they have known that for who bought it, there is no share of happiness in the ending, and miserable indeed is what they bought with themselves, if they were knowing. [2:102]<br /> Indeed, miserable is what they bought!<br /><strong>CONCLUSION</strong><br /> In summary, from the Quran, magic has the following characteristics:</p> <ol><li> Magic is not real.</li> <li> It is simply a fabricated trick/lie that deceives the eyes.</li> <li> It doesn't benefit that who buys it and believes in its benefit.</li> <li> It harms that who buys it thinking that it will benefit him/her.</li> <li> It doesn't succeed in changing anything in reality.</li> <li> Whoever bought it thinking that it would benefit him/her has no chance of succeeding in the hereafter.</li> </ol><p>After gaining this understanding from the Quran, let's review the Bukhari hadith that was quoted earlier:</p> <blockquote><p> <em>The Book of Bukhari, Volume 7: #671: </em><em>Narrated Saad:</em><br /><em>"Whoever takes seven 'Ajwa dates in the morning will not be effected by magic or poison on that day."</em> </p></blockquote> <p>What are the characteristics of this Bukhari hadith and others like it?</p> <ol><li> It is not real since anybody who eats seven 'Ajwa' dates in the morning and then takes some cyanide will die.</li> <li> It is simply a fabricated lie against the Prophet that deceives people.</li> <li> It doesn't benefit that who buys it and believes in its benefit.</li> <li> It harms that who buys it and carelessly approaches a snake after eating seven dates.</li> <li> It doesn't succeed in changing anything in reality because the snake will remain poisonous.</li> <li> Whoever bought and accepted it into his/her religion has no chance of succeeding in the hereafter.</li> </ol><p>Indeed who fabricates the lies/falsehood are those who do not have faith in The God's verses/evidences, and those, they are the liars. [16:105]<br /><em>IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:</em><br /><em>This is the book, no doubt, in it guidance for the forethoughtful. [2:2]</em><br /><em>Tomorrow, I will try to improve my understanding of the Quran and the universe, except if The God wills ("ila an yasha'a Allah") and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality. This article reflects my personal interpretation of the Quranic verses as of March 18th, 2003. Please be humble by following the example set by the angels in 2:32, verify all information within for yourself as commanded in 17:36, and remember that simply "none" is the forethoughtful answer to 45:6. If The God willed ("in sha'a Allah"), the outcome of this article will be beneficial.</em><br />  </p> <p>By Ayman (<a href="mailto:drayman@fast-email.com">drayman@fast-email.com</a>)</p> </div> Sat, 27 Aug 2011 09:07:47 +0000 admin 103 at https://free-minds.org