History / Archeology https://free-minds.org/category/history-archeology en The Kingdom of Israel - Beginning to Prophesized End https://free-minds.org/kingdom-israel <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Kingdom of Israel - Beginning to Prophesized End</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-11-13T11:18:19+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 11/13/2011 - 19:18</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/david.jpg?itok=snDC6KrE" width="276" height="183" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify">After over 60 years since occupying the land of Palestine, archeologists are still at a loss to explain why no evidence has been unearthed – despite the numerous digs – to prove the existence of the Kingdom of Israel in this same land as per Jewish claims. In-fact, so critical is this issue to validate Jewish claims over the land of Palestine that digs have been excavated in and around the Temple Mount itself, placing the Dome of the Rock and other historic structures in jeopardy!</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This article, will explain, from the Qur’an, the true history that has been eluding the Children of Israel for many generations.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">27:76-77 This Qur’an tells to the Children of Israel most of that which they are in dispute over.  And it is a guidance and a mercy for the believers.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><!--break--></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>1. Abraham, after taking a stand against his people’s idolatry, emigrates and settles in the "blessed land".</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">21:67-71 “I am fed-up of you and to what you serve besides God! Do you not comprehend?” They said: “If you are to do anything, then burn him, and give victory to your gods.” We said: “O fire, be cool and safe upon Abraham.” And they wanted to plan against him, but We made them the losers. And We saved him and Lot to the land which We have blessed in for the worlds.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Abraham4.jpg" style="margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The beginning of our story lies with the Prophet Abraham, one of the staunchest and steadfast figures in the Qur’an, who eventually becomes “father of the Prophets” as God blesses Abraham with a covenant that the “Prophethood” and “Scripture” would be forever in his progeny (see 29:27).</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/haran_map.jpg" style="margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px; height: 292px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Abraham’s origins are unconfirmed in the Qur’an, but the land of Mesopotamia as recorded in Genesis seems to be a reasonable candidate 5,000 years ago as it was a thriving land with culture and sophistication enough to warrant the debate that Abraham had with his people.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>2. Lot, who was from Abraham’s progeny, emigrates with Abraham.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">6:83-86 And such was Our argument that We gave Abraham over his people; We raise the degree of whom We please. Your Lord is Wise, Knowledgeable. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, both of whom We guided; and Noah We guided from before; and from his progeny is David, and Solomon, and Job, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron. It is such that We recompense the good doers. And Zachariah and John, and Jesus, and Elias; all were from the upright. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot; and each We have preferred over the worlds.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">29:26 Lot believed with him and said: “I am emigrating to my Lord. He is the Noble, the Wise.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Abraham-y-Lot-293x400.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Abraham was not alone in his travel towards the Holy Land, for Lot, who was related to Abraham and is recorded in the Qur’an as being from Abraham’s “progeny” emigrated with him.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>3. Abraham and Ismail raised the foundations of the Temple and called all people to the pilgrimage.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:127 And as Abraham raised from the Sanctuary its foundations, along with Ishmael: “Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">22:27 And call out to the people with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/tabernacle_in_land_gallery.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After residing for sometime in the Holy Land, Abraham goes about with his son Ismail to raise the foundations of the Temple and to call the people for the Pilgrimage.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>4. The location of the Temple was in a place called "Bakka".</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">3:96 The first Sanctuary established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/map-of-the-world-as-known-to-hebrews.gif" style="width: 400px; height: 571px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Psalms 84:6-7 [Who] passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; the rain also filleth the pools. They go from strength to strength, [every one of them] in Zion appeareth before God.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The area of the Holy Land in which the Temple was raised has been recorded by the Qur’an as having the name “Bakka”, a name which appears in the Torah (Psalms 84:6) and is associated with the land of Jerusalem (see article “<a href="http://free-minds.org/where-was-mohammed">Where Was Mohammed</a>” for a more detailed research).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>5. Some of Abraham's progeny resided in a valley area not very far from the Temple.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">14:37 “Our Lord, I have resided part of my progeny in an uncultivated valley near your Restricted Sanctuary. My Lord, so that they may hold the contact prayer. So let the hearts of the people incline towards them and give provisions to them of the fruits that they may give thanks.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/kidron.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While Ismail would have been a full grown man at the time, it is very likely that the person being referred to in 14:37 is Lot who we are told was from Abraham’s “progeny” (see 6:83-86). If so, then this would bring the town of Lot within the vicinity of the Temple.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>6. The town of Lot is destroyed for its sins.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">54:33-34 The people of Lot rejected the warners. We sent upon them projectiles. Except for the family of Lot, We saved them at dawn.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/SODOMANDGOMORRAH.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The town of Lot, which appears to have been situated near a main travel way (see 15:76-77), is believed to have been located in the area around the Dead Sea, which would make its location some 20-40 kilometers from the Temple in Jerusalem. </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>7. Parts of the town of Lot were left standing as a sign to mankind.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">29:34-35 “We will send down upon the people of this town an affliction from the heaven for what wickedness they were in.” And We left remains of it as a clear sign for a people who comprehend.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/petra.jpg" style="height: 274px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The remains of the ancient mountain dwellings around the area of the Dead Sea are the most likely candidate for being the original town of Lot as the Qur’an prophesized it was to be “left as a sign”. Also, the fact that Mohammed’s people used to reside in and around this region of Northern Arabia as being descendants of the Nabateans who originated the Arabic language, is again confirmed by the Qurans revelation that the people of Mohammed used to pass the remain of Lot “by day &amp; night” (see 37:133-138). </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>8. Abraham had Isaac in his old age, and lived to witness the birth of Jacob afterwards.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">11:71-72 And his wife was standing, so she laughed when We gave her the good news of Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. She said: “O my! Shall I give birth when I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man? This is indeed a strange thing!”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/IsaBlesJacob.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>9. Jacob (Israel) had twelve sons, amongst which was Joseph, who was sold into "Misr/Egypt"" as a servant.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">12:20-21 And they sold him for a low price, a few coins of silver, and they regarded him as insignificant. And he from Egypt who had bought him said to his wife: “Make his stay generous, perhaps he will benefit us or we may take him as a son.” And it was thus that We established Joseph in the land and to teach him the interpretation of the narrations. And God has full control over his situation, but most of the people do not know.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/joseph-sold.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The story of Joseph, chronicled in Sura 12 of the Quran, gives us much detail as to the events that had unfolded between the children of Jacob, and how, after plotting against their brother Joseph, they concoct a false tale of Joseph being eaten by the wolves.  </p> <p class="text-align-justify">The name “Misr,” which is used in the Quran to describe this land where Joseph was taken, is an ancient name used for the empire of ancient Egypt with the possibly meaning of “civilization” and “country”. This ancient name has been found recorded in Ugaritic inscriptions which refer to Egypt as “Msrm”, in the Amarna tablets it is called “Misri”, and Assyrian and Babylonian records called Egypt “Musur” and “Musri” (see source <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mizraim">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mizraim</a>).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>10. Joseph gains prominence with the King of "Misr/Egypt" and becomes in-charge of the granaries during the prophesized seven years drought.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">12:54-55 And the king said: “Bring him to me so that I may employ him to my person.” So when he spoke to him, he said: “Today you are with us in a high standing and trusted.” He said: “Appoint me over the granaries of the land, for I know how to keep records and I am knowledgeable.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/drought.jpg" style="height: 264px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">This “famine stele” records the occurrence of a “7 year drought” in ancient Egypt during the reign of king Djoser (ruled 2691-2625 BC).  Joseph, who according the Quran gained much prominence with the king, is assumed to be the legendary “Imhotep” whose name is found recorded in Egyptian inscriptions (see article “<a href="http://free-minds.org/who-was-imhotep">Who Was Imhotep</a>”).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>11. Joseph is able to bring his entire family to reside with him in Egypt.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">12:99-100 So when they entered upon Joseph, he took his parents to him and he said: “Enter Egypt, God willing, in security.” And he raised his parents upon the throne, and they fell in prostration to Him. And he said: “My father, this is the interpretation of my vision from before. My Lord has made it true, and He has been good to me that he took me out of prison and brought you out of the wilderness after the devil had made bitterness between me and my brothers. My Lord is Kind to whom He wills. He is the Knowledgeable, the Wise.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/_joseph_brothers.jpg" style="height: 302px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">As the Quran teaches us, Joseph, after some dramatic exchange with his brothers, is able to bring his parents, brothers, and their entire families, to reside in the land of Egypt for as long as they wish.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>12. Generations later, Egypt is ruled by a king who carries the title "Pharaoh" and the descendants of Jacob are persecuted.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">28:3-4 We recite to you from the news of Moses and Pharaoh with fact, for a people who believe. Pharaoh became mighty in the land, and he turned its people into factions; he oppressed a group of them by killing their children and raping their women. He was of those who corrupted.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/pharaoh.jpg" style="height: 401px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Quran is very unique in that it refers to the ruler during the time of Joseph as “King”, yet at the time of Moses, the title has changed to “Pharaoh” which demonstrates that the events are taking place nearly nine hundred years after Joseph as the title “Pharaoh” (meaning “great house”) was first used during the reign of the new kingdom in the middle of the 18<sup>th</sup> dynasty around the sixteenth century B.C. </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>13. Pharaoh rules over a large empire with many river streams flowing within.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">43:51 And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people: “O my people, do I not possess the kingship of Egypt, and these rivers that flow below me? Do you not see?”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Egypt.png" style="height: 462px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> Map of ancient Egypt – with its capital Memphis - during the reign of Ramses II, showing massive areas of control stretching from the Nile tributaries to the Euphrates in present day Syria.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>14. One of the key architects and advisor to Pharaoh was "Haamaan".</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">28:38 And Pharaoh said: “O commanders, I have not known of any god for you other than me. Therefore, O Haamaan, fire-up the bricks and make for me a high platform, so perhaps I may take a look at the god of Moses; though I think he is one of the liars.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/haamaan.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The name “Haamaan” has been found in ancient hieroglyph translation as meaning “Head of Quarry Workers” as has been appended in a monument honoring the name of Pharaoh indicating a special relation between the two.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>15. One of Israel’s Children “Moses” is raised in the house of Pharaoh as one of their own.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">28:7-9 And We inspired to Moses’ mother: “Suckle him, and when you become fearful for him, then cast him off in the sea, and do not fear nor grieve. We will return him to you and We will make him of the messengers.” Then the family of Pharaoh picked him up, so he would be an enemy to them and a source of sadness. Certainly, Pharaoh and Haamaan and their troops were wrongdoers. And the wife of Pharaoh said: “A pleasure to my eye and yours, so do not kill him, perhaps he will benefit us or we may take him as a son;” while they did not perceive.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/nicolas-poussin-pharaohs-daughter-finds-baby-moses.jpg" style="height: 305px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Mostly out of envy for the wealth and prosperity that the Children of Israel have been able to gain over the centuries spent thriving in the land of Egypt (see 20:87, 28:76), the Egyptians, led by Pharaoh, begin a campaign of persecution and hostility towards the descendants of Jacob.  In one of the many miracles that God chooses to support Moses, the mother of Moses, fearing that her newborn son would be killed by the Egyptians, is inspired by God to place her son in a crib and to place the crib on the shores of the sea where it is found by the wife of Pharaoh.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>16. Moses kills an Egyptian in a fight and flees Egypt for Midyan.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">28:15 And he entered the city unexpectedly, without being noticed by the people. He found in it two men who were fighting, one was from his clan, and the other was from that of his enemy. So the one who was from his clan called on him for help against his enemy, whereby Moses punched him, killing him. He said: “This is from the work of the devil; he is an enemy that clearly misleads.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">28:20-22 And a man came running from the farthest part of the city, saying: “O Moses, the commanders are plotting to kill you, so leave immediately. I am giving you good advice.” He exited the city, afraid and watchful. He said: “My Lord, save me from the wicked people.” And as he traveled towards Midyan, he said: “Perhaps my Lord will guide me to the right path.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/moseskills.jpg" style="height: 292px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/map-egypt-midian.jpg" style="height: 315px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Years later, Moses, now a man, wanders into town where he is involved in an altercation in which he punches an Egyptian causing his death. Being fearful that he will be arrested and executed, Moses flees to the land of Midian.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>17. After leaving Midyan with his family, Moses speaks with God at the “burning bush” and is sent back to Egypt to free the Children of Israel.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">20:10-13 When he saw a fire, he said to his family: “Stay here, I have seen a fire, perhaps I can bring a piece from it, or find at the fire some guidance.” So when he came to it he was called: “O Moses.” “I am your Lord, so take off your slippers; you are in the holy valley Tuwa.” 20:13 “And I have chosen you, so listen to what is being inspired.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/burning_bush.jpg" style="height: 300px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After spending a number of years in Midian, and having begun anew migration with his family, Moses sees a burning light on the right side of the valley wall, where, upon closer inspection, he finds that the Lord God is speaking to him.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>18. Moses, along with Aaron, arrive to Pharaoh – seeking the release of the Children of Israel - with 9 signs from God.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">20:41-47 “And I Have raised you for Myself.” “Go, you and your brother with Our signs, and do not linger from My remembrance.” “Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed.”  “So say to him soft words, perhaps he will remember or be concerned.” They said: “Our Lord, we fear that he would let loose upon us, or transgress.” He said: “Do not fear, I am with you, I hear and I see.” So come to him and say: “We are messengers from your Lord, so send with us the Children of Israel, and do not punish them. We have come to you with a sign from your Lord, and peace be upon those who follow the guidance.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/aaron_snake.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 426px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Moses, along with Aaron, are sent to the Pharaoh of Egypt to demand the release of the Children of Israel. Moses is supported by nine wondrous signs, all of which are rejected by Pharaoh and his commanders.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>19. Moses manages to escape with the Children of Israel by a crossing in the sea, while Pharaoh and his troops are drowned.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:49-50 And We saved you from the people of Pharaoh, they were afflicting you with the worst punishment; they used to slaughter your children, and rape your women. In that was a great test from your Lord. And We parted the sea for you, thus We saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were watching.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/10-commandments3.jpg" style="height: 267px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Exodus%20(Large).jpg" style="height: 350px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The possible crossing point for the Children of Israel seems most likely to be the Gulf of Suez, which is 12 miles wide at its narrowest point. The Gulf of Aqaba is also a possibility; however, judging by the events of the Quran in which Moses is being chased by Pharaoh on the morning following their escape (see 26:60) the first point of contact with the Gulf of Suez seems to be the more likely.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>20. God ensures preserves the body of Pharaoh as a sign for mankind.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">10:92 “This day, We will preserve your body, so that you become a sign for those after you.” But most of the people are unaware of Our signs!</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/mummy-ramses-ii.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The above is a photo of Ramses II, who seemed to have died around the age of 91, and in whose stomach were found traces of salt – indicating possible death by drowning. The age of this Pharaoh is very indicative as the Pharaoh of Moses lived a very long age evidenced by him raising Moses when he was a babe, and then having the same Moses approach him decades later with the request to release the Children of Israel.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>21. Moses is given the Torah, written on stone tablets.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:50-53 And We parted the sea for you, thus We saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were watching. And We appointed a meeting time for Moses of forty nights, but then you took the calf after him while you were wicked. Then We forgave you after that, perhaps you would be thankful. And We gave Moses the Book and the criterion, perhaps you would be guided.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">7:142-145 And We appointed for Moses thirty nights and completed them with ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was completed at forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Be my successor with my people and be upright, and do not follow the path of the corrupters.” So when Moses came to Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him, he said: “My Lord, let me look upon you.” He said: “You will not see Me, but look upon the mountain, if it stays in its place then you will see Me.” So when his Lord revealed Himself to the mountain, He caused it to crumble; thus Moses fell unconscious. When he awoke, he said: “Glory to You, I repent to You and I am the first of those who believe.” He said: “O Moses, I have chosen you over the people with My message and My words; so take what I have given you and be of the thankful.” And We wrote for him on the tablets from all things a lesson, and detailing all things. Take it with strength and order your people to take the best from it. I will show you the abode of the wicked.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/moses.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After crossing the sea, Moses spends a period of 40 nights waiting before the Lord God spoke with him. It was during this momentous event that God gave Moses the Torah, written on stone tablets.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>22. Moses, in his anger at seeing the Children of Israel worshipping the golden calf, smashes the Tablets of the Torah.</strong></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/mosestablets.png" style="height: 420px; width: 350px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Upon Moses’s return from the meeting with the Lord God, he finds his people have taken up a “golden calf’ made from the excessive ornaments and gold that they had brought with them out of Egypt. Also, this statue was special in that it could make the sound of a real calf, after being infused with some sand taken from where the magical staff of Moses had rested (see 20:88, 20:96). </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>23. The Children of Israel settle in a town by the sea, near which 12 springs are made to gush forth from the rocks.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">7:160-161 And We separated them into twelve patriarch nations; and We inspired Moses when his people wanted to drink: “Strike the stone with your staff,” thus twelve springs burst out of it. Each people then knew from where to drink. And We shaded them with clouds and We sent down to them manna and quail: “Eat from the good things that We have provided for you.” They did not wrong Us, but it was their souls that they wronged. And they were told: “Reside in this town and eat from it as you please, and say: “Our load is removed,” and enter the passageway by crouching, We will forgive for you your wrongdoings, and We will increase for the good doers.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:57-60 And We shaded you with clouds, and sent down to you manna and quails: “Eat from the goodness of the provisions We have provided you.” They did not wrong Us, but it was their souls that they wronged. And We said: “Enter this town, and eat from it as you wish bountifully. And enter the passageway by crouching, and say: “Our load is removed,” so that your wrongdoings will be forgiven, and We will increase for the good doers.” But the wicked altered what was said to them to a different saying, thus We sent down upon the wicked an affliction from the heavens for what wickedness they were in. And Moses was seeking water for his people, so We said: “Strike the stone with your staff.” Thus twelve springs exploded out of it; each people then knew from where to drink. “Eat and drink from the provisions of God, and do not roam the earth as corrupters.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Tissot_Moses_Smites_the_Rock_in_the_Desert.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> Settling in a small sea side town that they have come across, the Children of Israel quickly find that their large numbers are depleting all natural resources, thus God inspires Moses to use his magical staff to produce 12 springs from which each tribe amongst the Children of Israel would know from where to drink. The Children of Israel are also blessed with special food of quails and manna supplied by God.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>24. The Children of Israel head back to Egypt.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:61 And you said: “O Moses, we will not be patient to one type of food, so call for us your Lord that He may bring forth what the earth grows of its beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions.” He said: “Would you trade that which is lowly with that which is good?” Descend Egypt, you will have in it what you have asked for. And they were stricken with humiliation and disgrace, and they remained under the wrath of God for they were disbelieving in the revelations of God, and killing the prophets without right; this is for what they have disobeyed and transgressed.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/exodus1.jpg" /><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/egypt_farming.jpg" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Having become fed-up from living in the wilderness – even though God had supplied the Children of Israel with abundant water, quail and manna – the Israelites ask Moses to return them to the land of Egypt where they can produce the food they have become accustomed to. This request comes as there is no longer any threat to the Israelites from Pharaoh or his commanders who have all been drowned in the sea before their eyes.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>25. The Children of Israel finally head towards the holy land - but, due to refusing to fight, it becomes forbidden to them for 40 years.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">5:21-22 “O my people, enter the holy land that God Has decreed for you, and do not turn your backs, or you will become losers.” They said: “O Moses, in it are a mighty people, and we will not enter it until they leave from it. So when they leave from it, then we will enter.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">5:26 He said: “It has become restricted to them for forty years, and they will be lost in the land.” Do not be sorrowful over the wicked people.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/SwingWideGates3.jpg" style="height: 300px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After an unknown period of time spent back in Egypt – a gathering of the Children of Israel, along with Moses and Aaron, finally make their way towards the Holy Land – but upon reaching the gates, they refuse to enter the holy land thus incurring God’s wrath.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>26. Moses and Aaron decide to abandon the Children of Israel - God separates the Children of Israel, each group going its own way.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">5:24-25 They said: “O Moses, we will never enter it as long as they are in it, so go you and your Lord and fight, we will stay right here!” He said: “My Lord, I do not possess except myself and my brother, so separate between us and between the wicked people.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">7:168 And We divided them through the land as nations. From them are the upright, and from them are other than that. And We tested them with good things and bad, perhaps they will return.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/the-death-of-moses-150x150.jpg" style="height: 300px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Having become fed-up with the continuous rejection and blasphemy of the Children of Israel, Moses decides to abandon them to their fate – whereby God decrees that they are to be divided into groups, spread throughout the lands.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>27. Generations later, one gathering of the Children of Israel, who were being persecuted by their neighbors, establish the “Kingdom of Israel” with “Saul” being its first appointed king.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:246-247 Did you not note the leaders of the Children of Israel after Moses, they said to their prophet: “Send us a king that we may fight in the cause of God;” he said: “Are you not concerned that if fighting is decreed for you, you will then not fight?” They said: “And why should we not fight in the cause of God when we have been expelled from our homes along with our children.” So it was, that when fighting was decreed for them they turned away, except for a few of them! God is fully aware of the wicked. And their prophet said to them: “God has sent Saul to you as a king.” They said: “How can he have the kingship when we are more deserving than him, and he has not been given an abundance of wealth?” He said: “God has chosen him over you and increased him in knowledge and physical stature.” God grants His sovereignty to whom He chooses; and God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/saul.jpg" style="height: 359px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">A depiction of Saul – the first King of Israel – who managed to establish a Kingdom with the knowledge of military might and the support of one of God’s prophets.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>28. The remains of the Torah, broken by Moses, are brought to be housed under this new kingdom.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:248 And their prophet said to them: “The sign of his kingship shall be that he brings to you the ark in which there is tranquility from your Lord and the legacy of what was left behind by the descendants of Moses and the descendants of Aaron being carried by the angels. In this is a sign for you if you are believers.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/arkcov1.jpg" style="height: 225px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">A most momentous event takes place with the crowing of Saul, the long lost Ark of the Covenant, which houses the broken fragments of the Torah – lost since after the refusal of the Israelites to enter Palestine – reemerges at the hands of God’s angels.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>29. David becomes the second king of Israel, after defeating Goliath and his troops.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2:251 So they defeated them with the permission of God, and David killed Goliath, and God gave him the kingship and the wisdom and taught him what he wished. And if it were not for God defending the people against themselves, then the earth would have long been corrupted; but God has bestowed grace upon the worlds.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/rubens_david_goliath.jpg" style="height: 365px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In one of the decisive battles at the time, an Israelite by the name of David slays the leader of the enemy army “Goliath” and thus gains much status becoming Israel’s next king and a prophet of God.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>30. The Kingdom of Israel is situated in a mountainous land.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">"So We gave Solomon the correct understanding, and both of them We have given wisdom and knowledge. And We committed the mountains with David to praise as well as the birds. This is what We did. (21:79)</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/asir.jpg" style="height: 263px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The depictions of the Quran tell us that the land in which this Kingdom of Israel is one surrounded by mountains that glorify with David.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>31. Solomon inherits the kingship from David.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">27:16 And Solomon inherited from David, and he said: “O people, we have been taught how to understand the speech of the creatures that fly, and we have been given from everything. This is indeed an evident grace.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/King%20Solomon2.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 371px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Having developed into a formidable nation, Solomon inherits the Kingdom from his father David.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>32. The Kingdom of Israel was a considerable distance from the holy land.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">21:81 And to Solomon the gusting winds run by his command all the way to the land which We have blessed in. And We were aware of everything.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/winds.jpg" style="height: 212px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Further evidence that the Kingdom of Israel was not situated in the Holy Land in the Quranic description of Solomon having the power over the winds to send them <strong>TO</strong> the Holy Land (meaning they were in a place far off).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>33. The Kingdom of Israel was near the land of Sheba.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> 27:20-22 And he inspected the birds, then said: “Why do I not see the hoopoe, or is he among those absent?” “I will punish him severely, or I will kill him, else he should have a clear excuse.” But the hoopoe did not stay away long, then he said: “I have seen what you do not know, and I have come to you from Sheba with news which is certain.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/hoopoe.jpg" style="height: 231px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Hoopoe, with its short wingspan, can generate speeds of around 25-30 miles/hour. Thus, for the Hoopoe to return in a short time, indicates the proximity of Sheba to the Kingdom of Solomon.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As for the location of Sheba, that has been determined archeologically to be in Southern Arabia. <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1082648.stm">http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1082648.stm</a></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><a href="http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0009/12_sheba.html">http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0009/12_sheba.html</a></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Yemen_map.jpg" style="width: 400px; height: 433px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The above map depicts the estimated location of the Kingdom of Israel – which is around the mountain range of Southern Arabia known today as “Asir”.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>34. Sheba submits to God under the influence of Solomon.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">27:44 It was said to her: “Enter the palace.” So when she saw it she thought there was a pool, and she uncovered her legs. He said: “It is a palace paved with crystal.” She said: “My Lord, I have wronged myself; and I submit with Solomon to God, Lord of the worlds.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/solomon.jpg" style="height: 267px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Above painting shows a depiction of the grandeur of Solomon’s Kingdom upon receiving the female leader of Sheba. Solomon is accredited in the Quran as being ruler over one of the most powerful Kingdoms to ever emerge on Earth.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>35. The Kingdom of Israel is wiped out due to the transgression of its later generations.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">17:4-5 And We decreed to the Children of Israel in the Book, that you will make corruption twice on the earth, and that you will become very high and mighty. So, when the promise of the first one comes to pass, We would send against you servants of Ours who are very powerful, thus they managed to breach your very homes, and this was a promise which has come to pass.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><strong><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Prisoners.jpg" style="height: 244px; width: 400px;" /></strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The most likely force that attacked and destroyed the Kingdom of Israel for its transgression was the “Kingdom of Babylon” led by its king Nabuchadnezzar II, as images found in ancient Babylon have depicted Jewish prisoners taken after a Babylonian attack on Israel.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>36. Jesus, supported by powerful miracles, is sent to preach to the Children of Israel.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">3:47-50 She said: “My Lord, how can I have a son when no human being has been with me?” He said: “It is thus that God creates what He wills, when He decrees a command, He merely says to it ‘Be,’ and it is.” And He teaches him the Book and the Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel. And as a messenger to the Children of Israel: “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord; that I create for you from clay the form of a bird, then I blow into it and it becomes a bird with the permission of God, and I heal the blind and the lepers, and give life to the dead with the permission of God, and I prophesize for you what you shall eat and what to store in your homes. In that is a sign for you if you are believers.” “And authenticating what is between my hands of the Torah, and to make lawful some of that which was made unlawful to you; and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so be aware of God and obey me.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">5:46 And We sent in their footsteps Jesus, son of Mary, authenticating what was present with him of the Torah. And We gave him the Gospel, in it is a guidance and a light, and authenticating what was present with him of the Torah, and a guidance and a lesson for the righteous.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/jesus-nazaret.jpg" style="height: 351px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/Auguste%20de%20Forbin.%20%20View%20of%20Jerusalem%20near%20the%20Valley%20of%20Jehoshaphat%2C%201825..jpg" style="height: 252px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The most prominent grouping of the children of Israel, after the fall of the Kingdom of Israel, seems to have been centered in and around the Holy Land, where the Messiah Jesus appeared and preached the message of God to the Jews of the land – passing on his teachings in the form of the “Gospel” as he roamed the towns of area.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>37. Jesus is rejected and persecuted by the Children of Israel – who demand his death.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">4:157-158 And their saying: “We have killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, messenger of God!” And they had not killed him, nor crucified him, but it appeared to them as if they had. And those who dispute are in doubt regarding him, they have no knowledge except to follow conjecture; they did not kill him for a certainty. Instead, God had raised him to Himself; and God is Noble, Wise.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/JesusCrucified.jpg" style="height: 300px; width: 400px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">As is the case with most Prophets, Jesus was denied and his death was sought by the very Jews to whom he was preaching. Under the jurisdiction of the Roman Empire, Jesus was sentenced to death by crucifixion, where historical records depict his death as being “abnormally fast” in-line with the Qur’an teaching that God took his life rather than leave him to die at the hands of his enemies.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>38. Mohammed – from the lineage of Abraham – is sent with the Quran to preach to the Children of Israel, as well as mankind.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">61:6 And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel, I am a messenger of God to you, authenticating what is between my hands of the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be ‘most acclaimed.’” But when he showed them the clear proofs, they said: “This is clearly magic”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/mapkingdom.gif" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Born from the progeny of Abraham, and raised in the land of Arabia (the Nabateans – based in Northern Arabia - were the founders of the Arabic language), the Prophet Mohammed emerges around the 7<sup>th</sup> century A.D. to proclaim the final revelation to humankind – the Quran – and to deliver to the Children of Israel residing in that region God’s message as prophesized by the Prophet Jesus before him. </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>39. The Children of Israel, gain power and influence more than ever and regroup into one place. </strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">17:6 Then We gave back to you your independence from them, and We supplied you with wealth and sons, and We made you more influential.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">17:104 And We said after him to the Children of Israel: “Dwell on the earth, then, when the time of the second promise comes, We will bring you all together as a mixed crowd.”</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/imagesCAG84H5R.jpg" style="height: 240px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> The prophesized rise to power and regrouping of the Children of Israel came to fulfillment in 1948 with the declaration of the “State of Israel”. This is the first time since the Exodus, and the second time since the Kingdom of Israel, that a large mass of the Children of Israel has come together in one place.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>40. The end of “new Israel” will come at the hands of those who are Monotheists, as they will retake the Temple as they had done under centuries ago.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">17:7 If you do good, then it will be good for you, and if you do bad, then so be it. But when the promise of the second time comes, they will make your faces filled with sorrow and they will enter the Temple as they did the first time, and they will strike down all that was raised up.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/signpost.jpg" style="height: 200px; width: 250px;" />  <img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/man_pray.jpg" style="height: 200px; width: 279px;" /><img src="/sites/default/files/images/israel/350px-Temple_Mount.JPG" style="height: 200px; width: 300px;" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The sad truth for the Children of Israel is, as their rise to power and gathering has been prophesized in the final Scripture over 1,400 years ago – so has their undeniable end and destruction. The ungodly actions of the Children of Israel - coinciding with this second rise of power -  have ensured that their fate is sealed and that God’s system is moving towards events that will bring about this end.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">We ask that God have mercy on the souls of those amongst them who will still listen to the truth and amend their ways before the eventual end is here.</p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-center">Written for <a href="http://www.free-minds.org">www.free-minds.org</a></p> </div> Sun, 13 Nov 2011 11:18:19 +0000 admin 186 at https://free-minds.org How Did It Come To This? (Part 1) https://free-minds.org/how-did-it-come-part-1 <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How Did It Come To This? (Part 1)</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-07T18:03:59+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 09/08/2011 - 02:03</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/kaba_0.jpg?itok=on3D6d3D" width="217" height="232" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify"><strong>1:7. Guide us the straight path, the path of those You bestowed Your favor on, those who have not earned anger at them and not the strayers.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the article entitled Language Barrier we have seen how even important events in Sira (the biography of the prophet) are problematic, for example, when the prophet was born and where he lived. There is no evidence of a pre-quranic town named Mecca and the evidence shows that the common noun "mecca" (destruction) in 48:24 was appropriated after the great reading was revealed. So naturally, the question arises, where did the prophet really live?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Before we try to answer this question, let me say that I don't believe that it is necessarily an important question in itself. Had the answer been important then we would have been given a precise map in the great reading to find it. However, a possible value to answering this question is dispelling some of the traditional myths that surround the prophet's biography. This in turn may help us in some way or another to more clearly understand some aspects of the great reading.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>WHERE DID THE PROPHET REALLY LIVE?</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In our quest to find the region where the prophet really lived, we will use a somewhat different approach to previous attempts. We will use an approach based on the orthography of the great reading. In the same way that one can recognize if a scribe is British or American from the style of a person's English hand writing, the use of certain vocabulary and the spelling of certain words, we will try to use orthography to identify where the great reading was originally descended. As we saw in the article "Language Barrier", Arabic was an informal common people language and not a prestigious religious or literary language of the elite. As a result, archeologists have found that up to the Islamic era and the appearance of the great reading, Arabic inscriptions were written in various scripts and there was no specific script associated with the language. Arabic writers simply used the script of prestige of the geographic area where it was written. The script of prestige was the script associated with the language of prestige in the area. In the pre-Islamic era, there were two main scripts used to write Old Arabic:</p> <ol><li class="text-align-justify">The Nabataean Aramaic script. This is the script of the Nabataean Aramaic language.</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The Musnad script. This script is also called Ancient South Arabian script and it is the script associated with the Sabaic language.</li> </ol><p class="text-align-justify">While the Musnad script became extinct shortly after the Islamic era, the Nabataean script became the Arabic script that we are all familiar with today. The following map shows the location of Old Arabic inscriptions in the Nabataean script (in red) and Musnad script (in green).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In northern Arabia, southern Syria and southwestern Iraq, up to the fourth century AD, Aramaic was the language of prestige. Thus, we find that the important religious texts were in Aramaic. The distribution in the north of the Peninsula of Old Arabic texts suggests that speakers of the Old Arabic dialect were present throughout the areas where Aramaic had come to be the prestige language. It was therefore natural that when Old Arabic came to be written in these regions, the Nabataean Aramaic script was the chosen vehicle. However, unlike the Ancient South Arabian Musnad script, the late Nabataean script only had twenty-two letters to represent the twenty-eight phonemes of Arabic and thus was largely inadequate for the expression of Arabic. For example, the "B" and "T" are indistinguishable and so are the "Kh", "7a", and "J" and the "Z" and "R". Moreover, letters such as the "B", "Y", and "N" are indistinguishable in the initial and medial positions. Thus, dotting was sometimes used to resolve ambiguities. Despite those major inadequacies, the prestige of the Nabataean Aramaic script outweighed other considerations.<a href="file:///C:\Users\admin\Desktop\History-Archeology\ayman1.htm#_edn1"><sup>[1]</sup></a></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While the script of prestige in Northern Arabia was the Nabataean script, the script of prestige in Central Arabia and South Arabia was the Musnad script. Thus, in the Central Arabian town of Qaryat Al-Faw we find that Arabic inscriptions (see example below) were written using the Ancient South Arabian script. We also see the same phenomenon is the South at places such as Najran and Haram.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Arabic inscriptions found in Central Arabia such as the above use the Musnad script.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The prestigious script in central Arabia as demonstrated at Qaryat Al-Faw is Sabaic. So the orthography of the great reading negates a central Arabian origin. In central and south Arabia, the Sabaic script remained the prestige script until the Islamic era when it was displaced by the Nabataean Aramaic script of the great reading.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In the Roman affiliated Ghassanid provinces of northern Arabia, Greek increasingly became the prestige language of politics and religion starting around the mid fourth century CE and thus took over as the prestige religious script. This is confirmed by two pre-quranic leaves of parchment bearing a part of the Septuagint text of Psalm 78 (LXX, 77) with an Arabic explanation written in Greek script<a href="file:///C:\Users\admin\Desktop\History-Archeology\ayman1.htm#_edn2" title=""><sup>[2]</sup></a>. On the other hand, in southwestern Iraq and the border areas of Northern Arabia, the Lakhmid provinces continued to use Nabataean Aramaic as the script of prestige for writing Arabic.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Given the physical archeological evidence above and the fact that there was no specific script associated with Arabic, the great reading was simply written in the script of prestige of the region where it originated. At the late sixth century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic script was the script of prestige in the Northern Arabian Lakhmid provinces and border towns, just as the Musnad script was in central Arabia. So this completely negates that the great reading was originally written in a central Arabian town such as present-day Mecca otherwise it would have been written in the far more suitable Musnad script, which was the script of prestige for that region. This also completely negates that the great reading was originally revealed in a Roman town such as Jerusalem or the Ghassanids towns around it where Greek was the prestige script. The only logical conclusion based on the evidence is that the great reading must have originated in a north Arabian Lakhmid province where Nabataean Aramaic was the prestige script.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As an interesting side note, we see in the great reading Nabataean idols such as Manat spelled using the Nabataean spelling with a medial "waw" ("mnwt") as opposed to the Arabic spelling ("mnt"). This further supports that the great reading was revealed in an area where Nabataean Aramaic was the prestige script and hence the scribes adopted the foreign Nabataean spelling of the proper name that they are used to instead of the Old Arabic spelling, which matches the Arabic pronunciation.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">By connecting the locations of Old Arabic inscriptions in the Nabataean script on the map (see figure below), we get an idea of the general area where the great reading could have been originally written. Given that by the late sixth century CE, the upper parts of that area, such as Avdat and Umm Aljimal would have been under strong Roman influence and Greek would have become the prestige language, this leaves us with towns in the lower part of that area as the most likely candidates for where the great reading originated. This would be somewhere between Hegra and Hira, including towns such as Domat-Al-Jandal, Tabuk, Tayma, etc. Unlike the isolated and insignificant town later named Mecca, all those towns were significant towns on major trade routes and had diverse multi-faith populations. Thus, any of them would fit much better the description given in the great reading as "umm al-qura" (an expression akin to "mother of settlements" or "the cradle of civilization").</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Any of those towns in the Lakhmid provinces and border areas would also fit much better the clearly multi-faith environment where the great reading was revealed. Between the fourth and sixth century CE, Roman Christians have been persecuting other faiths such as Jews and even other Christian sects that they viewed as heretic such as Nestorians and Monophysites. As a result, those groups increasingly moved to the Lakhmid areas were they were tolerated and welcomed as a result of their opposition to the Romans. Thus, unlike Roman Christians, the Nasara are never described as being Trinitarians. In 5:72-73 we see that the term Nasara doesn't occur. The passage condemns as unappreciative/rejecters/"kuffar" Monophysites (5:72) and Roman Trinitarians (5:73). On the other hand, 9:30-33 describes the Nasara as "mushrikeen" (setting up partners) for claiming that Jesus is son of The God. The Nestorians fit this description because they rejected the Trinity and emphasized the humanity of Jesus. We know from archeological evidence that the Lakhmid areas were the main center for Nestorians.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Unlike the Roman provinces where intolerance towards other religions was rampant, it seems that paganism as well as a multitude of faiths were tolerated and continued to flourish under the Lakhmids. This plus the Christian and Jewish scholarship in the area provides the context of the multi-faith environment that the great reading was revealed in (see 22:17). The area where the prophet originally lived was likely a cosmopolitan north Arabian trading border town that maintained a somewhat neutral disposition and tolerant attitude for commercial reasons. This way, they could serve as a hub and trade with the Persians, the Romans, and any other political entity in the region. Business came first.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This cosmopolitan influence is clear and hence we can see loan words into the Arabic of the great reading that have been borrowed directly from Middle Persian. Some examples are:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"istabraq": brocade (76:21)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"kanz": treasure (9:35, 9:34, 11:12, 18:82, 25:8, 18:82, 26:58, 28:76)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"dirham": silver coin (12:20)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"jund": army/soldiers (36:28, 36:75, 38:11, 44:24, 67:20, 19:75, 37:173, 48:4, etc.)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Unlike the great reading, pre-quranic inscriptions in the Musnad script use the South Arabian word "jaysh" not "jund" for army/soldiers. Given that the Lakhmids had military alliances with the Persians, this is consistent with the great reading being revealed in a Lakhmid province or border town where Persian influence on the local Arabic dialect in the domain of military lingo would be stronger than central/south Arabian influence.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As we saw above, based on the orthographic evidence from the great reading itself and physical archeological evidence, the great reading must have originated in a north Arabian Lakhmid province or border town and not in a central Arabian area such as the area later known as Mecca. So if Mecca was not the town where the great reading was originally descended and the prophet lived, why did it take on this myth?</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>WHY MECCA?</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">To understand what really happened, we need to know that the examples that The God gives us in the great reading are directly relevant to our lives. In all the examples, the majority of people reverted to paganism and their misguided ways after they had received guidance. We know from the great reading that the people of the prophet venerated idols called Allat, Aluzza and Manat (53:19-20) and this is confirmed by archeological evidence. We also need to know that there is nothing in the great reading that even remotely suggests that paganism was eradicated in Arabia and the fact that paganism continued to flourish under the Arab kingdom is confirmed by the evidence from manuscripts of independent non-Islamic sources.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">With this in mind, let's observe what is going on in present day Mecca. If you go to Mecca, you will see that people are spinning seven times around a stone cube dressed in a black garment ("kiswah"). The focal point of the stone cube is what the pilgrims call the "Black Stone". It is set in the southeast corner of the stone cube precisely facing the winter sunrise. You will see the pilgrims compete to kiss the Black Stone. If you stop any of the pilgrims and ask them why they are performing the above rituals, they will answer that by performing the above rituals, their sins will be forgiven and they will return as if they are newborns.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The precise alignment of the Black Stone with the winter sunrise is not coincidental. Allat, the main idol of the prophet's people, was a fertility goddess and this is confirmed by archeological evidence from Nabataean sites. As typical of such fertility goddesses their symbols and rituals are related to the sun. In this case, the direction of the winter sunrise marks the location where the sun is "reborn". Now if you take a closer look, you will see that the enclosure of the Black Stone is in the shape of a dilated female vulva and the Black Stone is in the shape of the crown of the head of the newborn baby deity as it is coming out of the vulva.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Come closer yet and you will see that people are kissing the head of the newborn baby deity. Kissing the head is an ancient Arab tradition for asking for forgiveness. So kissing the top of the head of the newborn idol as traditionally done to ask for forgiveness, results in the pagan's sins being wiped out as if he or she was a newborn.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Hang around for a while and you will observe that people spin seven times around the Black Stone. A pre-quranic manuscript written by Epiphanius in the fourth century CE describes the ritual of spinning seven times as part of the birth festivals of the Nabataean idols Allat and Dhushara around the winter solstice. The number seven was considered sacred in Arab and pagan symbolism in general because of the five sacred planets plus the sun and the moon that the ancients venerated. To this day many people in the Arab world celebrate what is termed in Arabic Subu', which is a traditional festival that takes place on the seventh day after the birth of a newborn and on the seventh day after a pilgrims' return. Like the pagan pilgrimage that we observed and Epiphanius described, as part of the Subu' birth celebrations, people traditionally go around the house seven times while carrying the newborn baby.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Observe the pilgrims some more and you will see some of them running between two hills. Ask one of them why they do it and he or she will answer that this ritual is symbolic for looking for water for a newborn child. In all the above empirical observations, one can immediately see the strong connection between ideology, rituals and symbols that form concerted pagan celebrations of a fertility goddess giving birth. Those pagan rituals and symbols were simply appropriated into the new popular religion.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">As a goddess of fertility, this would make Allat equivalent to the Greek goddess Aphrodite. This would also make her equivalent to the Roman goddess Venus, the Semitic goddess Astarte/Ashtoreth, the Mesopotamian Ishtar, the Vedic goddess Kali, the Anatolian Cybele, and Frigga in the Norse mythos. Such fertility mother goddess was worshipped all over the ancient world under various names. Interestingly, black stones like the one in Mecca are commonly associated with such goddesses. For example, the following picture shows a black stone that was venerated at the Temple of Aphrodite, near Paphos, Cyprus.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Black stone of Aphrodite</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Black phallic stones were also widely associated with the cult of Cybele, the ancient Anatolian fertility goddess; and similar egg-shaped black stones are, to this day, revered in Indian temples to the Hindu fertility goddess Kali, who is also known as Black Mother.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Interestingly, according to Greek mythology Aphrodite's beauty is kept in a black cube. Allat has a particularly strong association with Aphrodite because Aphrodite is the Hellenized Allat. In post-quranic times we hear from Roman Christian sources about Aphrodite being worshipped by Arab pagans as late as the 8th century, long after the death of the prophet<a href="file:///C:\Users\admin\Desktop\History-Archeology\ayman1.htm#_edn3" title=""><sup>[3]</sup></a>. So paganism was not eradicated in Arabia as traditions contend but remained and reemerged.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Cyprus, the island of Aphrodite is also home to the highly venerated Hala Sultan Tekke shrine (many consider it the third holiest shrine of Islam). Like the shrine in Mecca, it too has a black rock, said to have fallen as a meteorite as part of the tritholon over the shrine. The shrine is also to a woman named Umm Haram, the alleged foster mother of the prophet.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another interesting common thread that runs through several of those idols is that they all had association with Friday. For example, Ashtoreth is connected to Friday. So is Venus, where the Romans named Friday after her as "dies veneris". The very name Friday is derived from the Norse goddess, Frigga. When the Germanic tribes invaded England they imposed their goddess upon the day meant to honor Venus. The day was called Frigedaeg, which gradually became "Friday". I don't think that it is a coincidence that Friday also became the "holy day" for sectarians who venerate Allat/Aphrodite and her black cube and Black Stone.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Also another interesting commonality is that such fertility goddesses were often veiled. Like the fertility goddess Cybele's veil, which covered her whole body, Allat's stone cube was also veiled with a black "dress". This practice of veiling the stone cube of the female goddess (and females in general) with a black dress continues to this day.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">There is nothing particularly unique or amazing about what I am saying. All prior nations have reverted to paganism to one degree or another shortly after the death of their prophet. We can see this, for example, in Christianity's appropriation of pagan symbols and festivals such as Christmas. This is human nature. To think that we are somehow unlike other humans is nothing more than arrogant denial. This is in line with what the great reading tells us:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>12:106. And the majority of them do not have faith in The God except while they are idolaters.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">If we believe in 12:106, then we must know that the majority of people who have faith in The God are idolaters who associate idols such as Allat with The God as we saw above. If those idolaters who are the majority wanted to maintain their illogical and indefensible pagan symbols and rituals while avoiding logical criticism, then what better way than to claim that the prophet himself did like they do and that their pagan symbols are mentioned in the great reading? By hijacking the common noun "maka(t)"/destruction in the great reading (48:24) an insignificant town with a small pagan temple became the rallying center of paganism. Sometime in the late Umayyad - early Abbasid era is when this location seems to have gained importance and the reintroduction of Allat's beloved pagan symbols and rituals under the guise of the new religion was completed.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">How were billions of men and women who profess to trust in The God and the great reading tricked into serving Allat by adoring her stone symbols and performing her rituals? In a twist of irony, as many of those men and women aged and estimated that death is near, they hastened to go to Allat believing that kissing her newborn's stone head or even just waving at it and spinning seven times around her stone cube would make them sinless. They believed that by doing those mindless rituals and honoring those inert objects they were doing something good. They thought that they would die in peace and go to heaven. Alas, in reality they were committing unforgivable idolatry and buying their way to unavoidable hell. Those people are not nameless and faceless. They are most of our forefathers, our grandparents, our parents, our loved ones, us and probably our children. How did it come to this? Indeed, this is the question we need to try to answer next from the great reading so that perhaps we can protect them from a fire whose fuel is people and stones, if The God willed.  To be continued...</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>2:2. This is the book no doubt in it, a guidance for the forethoughtful.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">This article reflects my personal interpretation of the verses of the reading as of January 5, 2006. I will try to improve my understanding of the great reading and the universe, except if The God wills and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality. Please verify all information within for yourself as commanded in 17:36, and remember that simply "none" is the forethoughtful answer to 45:6. If The God willed, the outcome of this article will be beneficial.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">-------------------------</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>NOTES</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><sup>[1]</sup> MCA Macdonald, "Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia." Arabian arch. epig. 2000: 11: 28–79.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><a href="file:///C:\Users\admin\Desktop\History-Archeology\ayman1.htm#_ednref2"><sup>[2]</sup></a> The fragment was first published in Violet B. Ein zweisprachiges Psalmfragment aus Damascus and was recently restudied by M.C.A. Macdonald who has demonstrated that it dates to the pre-Islamic period.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><a href="file:///C:\Users\admin\Desktop\History-Archeology\ayman1.htm#_ednref3"><sup>[3]</sup></a> For example, see: Hoyland, R., Seeing Islam as others saw it, The Darwin Press: Princeton, NJ, 2001: 105-106, 485-486.</p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">By Ayman (<a href="mailto:drayman@fast-email.com">drayman@fast-email.com</a>)</p> </div> Wed, 07 Sep 2011 18:03:59 +0000 admin 148 at https://free-minds.org Which Qur'an? https://free-minds.org/which-quran <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Which Qur&#039;an?</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-09-02T14:36:26+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 09/02/2011 - 22:36</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/WhichQuran_0.jpg?itok=q66YX0gh" width="186" height="139" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Disclaimer.</strong> The reader is strongly advised to independently verify all information given as per 17:36.</p> <p>All Muslims are taught from a very early age that the Quran is a perfectly preserved book and that God has taken it upon himself to guard each verse, word, and letter of the Quran from any errors or changes:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>“Indeed it is We who have sent down the Reminder, and indeed it is We who will preserve it.” (Quran 15:9)</em></p> </blockquote> <p>However, one of the least discussed or debated subjects amongst Muslims and even amongst students of the Scripture are the variant texts of the Quran, namely: Hafs &amp; Warsh.</p> <!--break--> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/001.png" style="width: 120px; height: 164px" />  <img src="/sites/default/files/images/002.png" style="width: 120px; height: 164px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>Hafs Version               Warsh Version</em></p> <p>Although there are other versions in print, such as in Qalun in Libya, or Al-Duri in Sudan, <u>this paper will primarily deal with the examination of Hafs and Warsh</u>.</p> <p>To know whether the Quran you are reading is Hafs or Warsh, there is a simple test:</p> <ul style="list-style-type: square"><li>Look at the first Chapter/Sura of the Quran. If you see that the ‘Basmallah’ (the opening of the chapter which reads: ‘In the name of God, the Almighty, the Most Merciful’) has a number ascribed after it (the number 1), then you have the ‘Hafs’ version…If there is no number and it is treated like the other 112 Basmallahs, then you have the Warsh version.</li> </ul><p><strong>How Did These Versions Exist?</strong></p> <p>As far as we can be aware, the revelation of the Quran began at around the 7th century A.D. by the angel Gabriel to the prophet Mohammed. The revelations were in Arabic verse form, which were then recorded by the prophet to script (29:48). The revelation of verses continued over a period of time (17:106), until at the end of the revelation the prophet rearranged the Quran into a ‘specific’ arrangement of Chapters and verses according to divine instructions (16:101-102).</p> <p>While it is not known what happened to the original Quran that was recorded and arranged by the prophet, it is known that many copies of the finalized Quran were made and distributed to the prophet’s followers, who in turn carried these copies with them to the various geographic regions they migrated to (Kufa, Basra, Mekka, Damascus, North Africa, etc.)</p> <p>Some time later, when the groups met or converged, it was noticed that the recitals they carried were in a slightly different manner from each other since they were based on the textual copy each had taken with them as well as the small but significant dialectal differences. The differences ranged from slight textual changes (a “Waw” or “Alif” was added), to different reading of letters (reading a “Ya” as a “Ta”), to vocalization differences (“Maalik” vs. “Melik), and finally to differences in the location of the verse stops (which were used to indicate the original verse revealed by God to the prophet).</p> <p>It is not known which of these groups had with them an accurate copy, or which group had a copy with scribal errors, or which group had a deliberately altered copy…</p> <p>This problem of the variations continued to go unabated until the 5th century after the Hijra (around the 11th century A.D.) when the varying number of Quran recitations were studied and classified in the first known work on the subject by Abu Ma’shar Al-Tabari.</p> <p>Rather than dealing with this most serious of issues head on and searching for the  evidence to support the correct Quran (only one was revealed); the scholars of Al-Tabari’s time decided to side-step the problem completely by finding a convenient of Hadith whereby the prophet had “allegedly said” that Gabriel revealed the Quran to him in 7 different dialects/readings (also known as the ‘7 letters’), and therefore all the groups were correct in their recitations since these variations were sanctioned by the Hadith.</p> <p>Even though the Hadith spoke of 7 versions, Al-Tabari concluded that 8 of the existing versions of the Quran were ‘authentic’ (later scholars increased this to 10) and that they could all be traced back to the prophet through well respected scholars from the 2nd century after the Hijra whom he identified as follows:</p> <ol><li>Nafi Bin Abdulrahman (Died 169 A.H.)</li> <li>Abdulla Bin Kathir (Died 120 A.H.)</li> <li>Abdulla Bin Amer (Died 118 A.H.)</li> <li>Asim Abi Al-Nujood (Died 127 A.H.)</li> <li>Hamza Al-Zayaat (Died 156 A.H.)</li> <li>Al-Kisai, Ali Bin Hamza (Died 189 A.H.)</li> <li>Abu Amru Al-Basari (Died 154 A.H.)</li> <li>Yaqoub Al-Hadrami (Died 205 A.H.)</li> </ol><p>So as not to cause more confusion to an already confused public, the Islamic scholars decided that each reading should go by a unique name to identify which versions/recitation it is from. Hence, the version that survived from North Africa came to be known as “Warsh” while the version that was prevalent in the Middle East became “Hafs”.</p> <ul style="list-style-type: square"><li>Hafs - Based on the link to Hafs Al-Asadi, and Asim Abi Al-Nujood.</li> <li>Warsh - Based on the link to Uthman Al-Qutbi Al-Masri, and Nafi Bin Abdulrahman.</li> </ul><p>The recognition and acceptance of these two versions of the Quran goes far enough for the Government of Saudi Arabia (<a href="http://www.qurancomplex.org/">King Fahad Quran Complex</a>) to print both versions as being authentically accepted narration of the Quran.</p> <p>In-fact, if you listen to recitations of the Arabic Quran on-line, then you should notice the next time that amongst the list of selections for recitals there is always a few of the ‘Warsh’ version (Listen to the Warsh recital by <a href="http://english.islamway.com/sindex.php?section=erecitorslist&amp;iw_a=view&amp;id=36">Mahmoud Al-Hosary</a>).</p> <p><strong>Is There Really a Difference?</strong></p> <p>There is a widely prevalent belief that there are no ‘real’ differences between the two versions of Hafs &amp; Warsh and that they are simply slight vocal variations (a letter here, a letter there) which do not have any impact on the meaning of the Quran.</p> <p>An example of an argument against the existence of ‘significant’ differences can be read in the following post by brother Mirghani on the subject:</p> <p><a href="http://www.inet.ba/~hardy/differences.htm">http://www.inet.ba/~hardy/differences.htm</a></p> <p>The truth of the matter however is that there are <strong>significant</strong> differences which cannot simply be waived away or ignored…</p> <p>For example:</p> <ul style="list-style-type: square"><li>2:125 in Hafs is <span dir="rtl">وَاتَّخِذوْا</span> “WatakhIzu” (You shall take) / In Warsh it is <span dir="rtl">وَاتَّخَذوْا</span> “WatakhAzu” (They have taken/made).</li> </ul><p>In 2:125 the subject being addressed is that of “Maqam Ibrahim”. One version gives a <strong>command/order</strong>, while the other states a <strong>historical fact/observation</strong>.</p> <ul style="list-style-type: square"><li>3:146 in Hafs is <span dir="rtl">قاتل</span>  “Qatal” (Fought) / In Warsh it is<span dir="rtl"> ُقتل </span> “Qutil” (Were Killed).</li> </ul><p>In 3:146 the difference is between a prophet and those with him being killed, while in the other the difference only means that they fought by his side.</p> <ul style="list-style-type: square"><li>Verse counts for Hafs are <strong>6236</strong>, while Warsh records <strong>6214</strong> (other versions record 6616, 6217, 6204, and 6262).</li> </ul><p> </p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/004.png" style="width: 400px; height: 63px" /></p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/003.png" style="width: 380px; height: 81px" /></p> <p>Muslims claim to know the time, place, and occasion that each verse was revealed in…Yet between Hafs and Warsh they seems not to know even how many verses were originally revealed!</p> <p>The question that presents itself is: “<strong>Which did Gabriel reveal?</strong>”</p> <h3 class="rtecenter"><strong>Due to formatting issues, the remainder of this paper is best viewed in PDF (<a href="http://www.free-minds.org/sites/default/files/WhichQuran.pdf">click: Which Quran</a>).</strong></h3> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">By Layth Al-Shaiban (laytth@hotmail.com)</p> </div> Fri, 02 Sep 2011 14:36:26 +0000 admin 142 at https://free-minds.org The People of the Elephant https://free-minds.org/people-elephant <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The People of the Elephant</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-30T17:23:04+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 08/31/2011 - 01:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/petra.jpg?itok=DJKK2MQU" width="201" height="300" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>According to traditional Muslim belief, there is an extraordinary story about a powerful military general's expedition to Mecca in the year the exalted prophet was born. This powerful leader, whose name was Abraha – king of Saba, Hadramawt and Yamen – is believed to have been killed by the Meccans, and his army humiliated when he launched an attack on the Ka'bah. As amazing as this story is, we observe that the Quran seems to mention this event as well, or so the traditionalists contend. Nonetheless, it would be vital to validate this event and determine its authenticity.</p> <p>In the 700's AD onwards, there seem to have been two dominant forces within the Muslim geopolitical framework: The Abbasids (backed by remainders of the Sassanids/Persians/Zoroasterians) and the Ummaiyads or banu-Ummaiyah. Both groups are of Arab decent, notably from the Hijaz.</p> <p>To assert their legitimacy, the bani-Hashim, who would later become the Abbasids, start to promote the the victory of the Arabs lead by Abdul-Muttalib against Abraha... The Abbasids officially base their claim to the caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib: This alone is a clear indication as to why they would be inclined to promote an event such as this.</p> <p>Abbasid Account</p> <p>According to this story, Abraha, Governor or King of Yemen built a great church at Sanaa in honor of his ally the Negus, a Christian Abyssinian Emperor. The church gained widespread fame, even gaining the notice of the Byzantines. The pagan Arabs of the time had their own center of religious worship and pilgrimage in Mecca, the Kaaba. Abraha then proceeded to attempt to divert their pilgrimage to his new cathedral and is reported to have appointed and sent a Muhammad Khuza'i to Mecca and the Hijaz as a king with a message that his church was both much better than their house of worship and purer, having not been defiled by the housing of idols.</p> <p>Abraha, incensed, launched an expedition of 40,000 men against the Kaaba at Mecca led by a white elephant (and possibly with other elephants) in order to destroy the Kaaba. Several Arab tribes attempted to fight him on the way, but were defeated.</p> <p>Other sources state that Abraha's elephant couldn't make further steps into Mecca. Neither force nor dissuasion would make it advance towards Mecca. If they turned him towards Syria or Yemen, it would walk in haste but when he was turned towards the Kaaba, it would kneel on its knees as if it would adore the city that its master was intent on destroying.</p> <p>As Abraha neared Mecca, he sent them an emissary, telling them that he would not fight them if they did not resist his destruction of the Kaaba. Abdul Muttalib, the chief of Quraysh, responded that he would defend his own property, but God would defend His house, the Kaaba, and withdrew with his people. The next day, as Abraha prepared to enter the city, swarms of birds carrying small rocks came and bombarded the Ethiopian forces; each man that was hit was killed, and they fled in panic, as Abraha died a horrible death. The tribes saw this as a sign of the Kaaba's holiness. According to the Abbasid account, this incident took place in 570 C.E. when the exalted Messenger was born; this year was commemorated as the "Aam-il Feel" (Year of the Elephant).</p> <p>A Relatively More Realistic Scenario</p> <p>Research conducted by Hamiduddin Farahi, Amin Ahsan Islahi and G.A.Parwez on the account of "Year of the Elephant" seems to be a bit less mystical. The Arabs had been alerted by some travelers about the enemy's capabilities. They hence were prepared to put up a good fight through various improvised tricks, which helped them scare the elephants. The beasts, in turn, panicked and trampled the enemy soldiers. The event carried such significance that the Arabs, in their Calendar, marked it "Aam-il Feel" as a point of reference in history.</p> <p>Qadisiyyah, 636 AD: Elephants Confuse Arab Cavalry?</p> <p>Let us go to a point in time when the Muslim civilization was expanding rapidly in its early stages. An extremely perplexing account in early Muslim conquests is that of the battle of Qadisiyyah. This battle was fought against the Sassanid/Pehlavi forces in 636 AD. The Persian army's war elephants terrified the Arab cavalry, and succeeded in creating mass confusion among the Arab fighters for two days straight. By the third day of battle, the Muslim army succeeded in frightening the Persian elephants through various improvised tricks. When an Arab warrior succeeded in slaying the lead elephant, the rest fled into the rear and trampled the enemy soldiers. The Arabs continued to advance their attacks during the night.</p> <p>It seems rather strange that the Muslim army (that had overrun so many areas before advancing to Persia) was initially perplexed by war elephants in this way. The Arabs were lead by a tribe that had supposedly destroyed Abraha's elephant backed army. If they did, then why were they so terrified of war elephants as if they never saw such beasts in action before? Consider the fact that it took them three days to figure out how to tackle elephants! If they had fought an army with elephants before, they would have heard of stories that included the tricks they used to fight and defeat Abraha. The tactics used by the Arab army seem to have been improvised on the Qadissiyyah battle, and were certainly not rules of thumb. Why would they have not learned from the accounts from the battle of Mecca? Why does it seem that Qadisiyyah is where Arabs fought an army with elephants for the first time?</p> <p>History of War Elephants</p> <p>To add to the confusion, it would be worthwhile at this stage to first list some notable battles involving elephants. These battles include:</p> <p>------------------</p> <p>331 BC, Battle of Gaugamela</p> <p>326 BC, Battle of the Hydaspes River</p> <p>317 BC, Battle of Paraitacene</p> <p>316 BC, Battle of Gabiene</p> <p>312 BC, Battle of Gaza</p> <p>301 BC, Battle of Ipsus</p> <p>280 BC, Battle of Heraclea</p> <p>279 BC, Battle of Asculum</p> <p>275 BC, Battle of Beneventum</p> <p>262 BC, Siege of Agrigentum</p> <p>255 BC, Battle of Tunis</p> <p>252 BC, Siege of Panoramus</p> <p>238 BC, Battle of Utica</p> <p>238 BC, Battle of "The Saw"</p> <p>239 BC, Battle of the Bagradas River</p> <p>219 BC, Siege of Saguntum</p> <p>218 BC, Crossing of the Alps and the Battle of Trebia</p> <p>217 BC, Battle of Raphia</p> <p>207 BC, Battle of the Metaurus</p> <p>202 BC, Battle of Zama</p> <p>190 BC, Battle of Magnesia</p> <p>164 BC, Battle of Beth-zur</p> <p>153 BC, Roman siege of Numantia (Spain)</p> <p>149 BC, Siege of Carthage</p> <p>108 BC, Battle of Muthul</p> <p>46 BC, Battle of Thapsus</p> <p>451 AD, Battle of Vartanantz</p> <p>636 AD, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah</p> <p>1214 AD, capture of Cremona by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor</p> <p>1659 AD, Battle of Khajwa</p> <p>1556 AD, Second battle of Panipat</p> <p>1761 AD, Third battle of Panipat</p> <p>------------------</p> <p>Are we missing something? Think and think again ... 570 AD! Where is the battle that took place at Mecca? We are told in traditional stories of how a tribe of bedouin turned an army backed by elephants into half eaten fodder! This battle should have been one of the decisive battles in the history of elephant warfare! Yet, the Islamic mark is made in elephant wars with the Battle of Qadisyyah.</p> <p>"Aam-il Feel" is supposed to be the turning point in Mecca's history, and possibly the advent of Islam itself. Why would there be no mention of this battle when the Quraish tribe is supposed to have decisively won against Abraha's cavalry? Did he use any elephants at all? This is a paradigm shattering question that one is confronted with when the above arguments are presented.</p> <p>Commemoration of Abraha's Expedition: No Elephants?</p> <p>An inscription was recently discovered in Southern Arabia, that commemorates the expeditions lead by Abraha. This inscription seems to be telling a story quite to the contrary to the Arabian accounts. Following is the transcribed message and its translation.</p> <p class="rtecenter"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/abraha_inscr.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 164px" /></p> <p><em>Transcription:</em></p> <p><em>"bi khayl Rahmanan wa masyha malikan Abraha Zybman malik Saba' wa Zuraydan wa Hadramut wa Yement wa r'a rab hamw twadam wa thamat satro zn satran k'ghazow ma'ndam ghazwatn rab'atan b'warkhan Zthbatan Kafa saadu kl bani amrm wa zaki malikn abjabar b ainam kadat wain w basharm bin hasahanm bainm san dam wa mardam wa hadaru qadami jayshan alia bani yamram kadat wail bi wad samrakh wa mardam wa sadam bi wad bi manhaj tarban wa zabahow wa sarw wa ghanamw zaisam wa makhdah malakin bi Halban wa dawn ka zalam maidam wrahanw wa badanahaw nwa sa'aham mw Amram Bin Mazran wa rahanamw bin haw wa sata khalafw ala ma'dam wa qafalw bin hal ( bi)n bi akhayal Rahmanan wa rakhaw zalan salthany w sathya ws."</em></p> <p><em>Translation:</em></p> <p><em>"With the power of the Almighty, and His Messiah King Abraha Zeebman, the King of Saba'a, Zuridan, and Hadrmaut and Yemen and the tribes (on) the mountains and the coast wrote these lines on his battle against the tribe of Ma'ad (in) the battle of al-Rabiya in the month of "Dhu al Thabithan" and fought all of Bani A'amir and appointed the King Abi Jabar with Kinda and Al, Bishar bin Hasan with Sa'ad, Murad, and Hadarmaut in front of the army against Bani Amir of Kinda. and Al in Zu Markh valley and Murad and Sa'ad in Manha valley on the way to Turban and killed and captured and took the booty in large quantities and the King and fought at Halban and reached Ma'ad and took booty and prisoners, and after that, conquered Omro bin al-Munzir. (Abrha) appointed the son (of Omro) as the ruler and returned from Hal Ban (Halban) with the power of the Almighty in the month of Zu A'allan in the year sixty-two and six hundred."</em></p> <p>The above inscription raises a vital question in the account of Abraha's expedition. Where is the mention of the elephants he supposedly used? And if there were no elephants used, then why or how would the year of the exalted prophet's birth be commemorated as the "Year of the Elephant"? Was there really such an event or was it fabricated for some reason?</p> <p>Now, let us try to imagine an elephant trying to make its way from Yamen to Mecca. Even horses are fragile enough that they have to be fed camel butter to keep cool and hydrated in the Arabian desert. Think of an elephant trying to brave the travel, especially when it feeds on tons of leaves and vegetation after every mile. Furthermore, an elephant stays in the shade or in pools of water, and even pours mud on itself to keep cool. The scorching hot sand is hardly something even the African desert elephant would be inclined to put on itself. If Abraha used elephants in his expedition, could they have survived in the harsh weather conditions of the Arabian desert? Simply put, to have elephants make their way from Yemen to Mecca would be quite an arduous task given the harsh conditions, all the more reason for the absense of elephants from the inscription being a vital indicator that no elephants were used.</p> <p>Moreover, the expedition by Abraha ended with his victory and return to his capital according to the inscription. This is almost two decades before the alleged "Year of the Elephant". There is no mention of a second expedition in historic accounts, which means he must have fought and defeated every Arab tribe he came across. Further, it concludes that if the Meccans fought against Abraha at Mecca, they were decisively defeated by him.</p> <p>The above inscription is irrefutable evidence that would send shivers down the spine of a traditionalist. Furthermore, Chapter 105 speaks of the "People of the Elephant" and certainly not Abraha's army. A logical question hence follows: Who were these mysterious people the Quran speaks of?</p> <p>Quranic Evidence</p> <p>In order to understand Chapter 105 of the Quran, one must resort to Tasreef: The science of extracting the context of a verse by examining other similar verses in the Quran. This is extremely necessary since traditional accounts seem to be, at best, laced with riddles. It can be observed that the style and tone of verses in Chapter 105 is extremely similar to other instances in the Quran. All these instances seem to be indicating different peoples living either in the same geographical location, or in close proximity. These peoples are none other than 'Aad, Thamud and the nation of Salih.</p> <p>89:6 Ever considered what your Lord did to ‘Aad?</p> <p>89:7 (City of) Irum, with the great columns?</p> <p>89:8 The one which was like no other in the land?</p> <p>89:9 And Thamud who carved the rocks in the valley?</p> <p>and</p> <p>54:16 Then see how was My Requital after My warnings!</p> <p>54:18 The tribe of Aad had also belied the Message. Then see how was My retribution after My warnings! [7:65]</p> <p>54:19 Behold, We sent raging winds upon them on a day of relentless misery.</p> <p>54:23 Thamud also rejected the warnings. [Thamud and Saleh 7:73-79, 11:61-68, 26:141:158]</p> <p>54:30 Then see how was My retribution after My warnings!</p> <p>54:33 Lot’s folk rejected warnings. [11:69-83]</p> <p>54:34 Behold, We sent a storm of fiery stones on them, except the family of Lot whom We saved at dawn. [51:32-34]</p> <p>and</p> <p>11:81 The visiting Messengers said, "O Lot! Behold, we are Messengers of your Lord. Never shall they follow your guidance nor shall be able to catch up to you. Depart then, with your household and followers, while it is yet night. Leave this land never to look back again. Except your wife for, what befalls the people will befall her as well. Their appointed time is the morning, and isn’t the morning near? (She stays behind because she has chosen to go along with the trends of the times. And she is among those who remain silent at the prevalent wrongdoing).</p> <p>11:82 And so, when Our Command came to pass, We brought low the highly arrogant towns (Sodom and Gomorrah), and rained down upon them hard devastating rocks (from the volcano).</p> <p>and</p> <p>15:74 And We turned the towns upside down and showered upon them hard heated rocks.</p> <p>15:75 Therein verily are lessons for those who read the signs.</p> <p>15:76 And behold, those towns (Sodom and Gomorrah) stood by a road that still exists.</p> <p>15:77 Verily, herein lies a message indeed for those who believe.</p> <p>It can immediately be observed that the tone and propositional query style of verses 89:6-9, 54:16-34, 11:81-92 and 15:74-77 put together is identical to chapter 105. In fact Surat-ul Feel seems to be a wrap up for the accounts in the above mentioned chapters. Furthermore, the geographical area being spoken of in the above verses is that of the regions close to the Dead Sea, notably Petra, Sodom and Gomorrah.</p> <p>From Whom did Nabataeans Inherit Petra?</p> <p>As discussed in the previous section, the various verses in the Quran state that Thamud inherited the city of 'Aad. 'Aad were the people of the prophet Hud. These people were a powerful nation whose homes are still visible according to 41:15 and 29:38. Their main city as explained in 89:6-7 was Irum that featured great columns.</p> <p>After their destruction, the Thamud took over the region; they used to carve homes in the mountains, and was a military community that boasted its might according to 53:50-51, 7:74, 85:17-18. Their homes are still stand according to 29:38. Since Sodom and Gomorrah is also mentioned, then the city of lofty columns and stone carved homes is none other than the location of Petra.</p> <p>One can almost see light at the end of the tunnel, but an important question still remains: If Chapter 105 refers to the people who lived in the Petra, then how are they supposed to be “The People of The Elephant”? One would invariably have to start depending on archaeological evidence to connect the dots.</p> <p>Columns with Elephant Heads in Petra?</p> <p>Archaeologists, in 1921, published their survey of the remains of the city of Petra. In this publication, archaeologists discovered ruins of a large building was discovered that is now believed to be the royal court on the south side of the city. This building (and the city at large) features huge columns (89:7) that were decorated with elephant heads (105:1). The elephant colums and their story is yet to be studied in detail, but it seems clear that the symbol of the elephant was used as a symbol of might and power.</p> <p class="rtecenter"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/petra_elephant.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 206px" /></p> <p>Be that as it may, recent excavations in Petra beside the Royal Court have revealed what used to be a public pool and surrounding gardens. Previously this area was thought to have been a market place, because it was wide and open. Another great feature of the city is that many of its monuments have been carved out in rocks. The builders of Petra seem to have a knack for stone carved monuments (89:9).</p> <p>Petra (from the Latin word 'petrae', meaning 'rock') lies in a great rift valley east of Wadi 'Araba in Jordan about 80 kilometers south of the Dead Sea. Nabataeans moved into this area in the first three hundred years of the first millennium BC, and seem to have inherited such monuments as well. Perhaps these constructs were their inspiration to rise to greatness, and this could very well be the reason why this area and its mysterious people are mentioned so many times in the Quran. Their legends must have been popular throughout Arabia. Is it not this region and its past peoples that have been alluded to in Chapter 105 of the Quran all along?</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>We can successfully derive three extremely important conclusions with this discussion:</p> <p>1) From the analysis in the paper, we can clearly see that "Aam-il Feel" is not 570 AD, but could very well be 636 AD when Arab forces defeated the elephant backed army of the Sassanids. The now-traditional account of "Aam-il Feel" is an Abbasid fabrication. It seems that in their selfish desire to legitimize their rule, they manipulated the facts of a historic battle to concoct an imaginary event, and even twisted the interpretation of a Quranic chapter to make this event look believable.</p> <p>2) It is clear that the battle of Mecca, if it was ever fought against Abraha, ended in defeat for the Arabs in the 6th Century AD. The very name Mecca in classical Arabic means "destruction", so there is a possibility that Abraha left the city in ruins by the time he was through.</p> <p>3) Further, if the above two points are the real deal, then the traditional translation of Chapter 105 of the Quran is grossly incorrect. It points to a different peoples in a different time and location of Arabia, notebly the region near the Dead Sea. This is the same region discussed in preceeding sections. Surat-ul Feel is indeed a wrap up for the accounts of 'Aad, Thamud and the nation of Salih throughout the Quran; the correct rendition would hence be as follows:</p> <p><span dir="rtl">ألم تر كيف فعل ربك بأصحب الفيل</span></p> <p>Did (you) not consider how your Lord dealt with the people of the elephant? [This is referring to the predecessors of those who lived in Petra. Remains of what archaeologists call "The Royal Court" was discovered near Petra in the mid 1900s, that was ornamented with columns bearing elephant heads. Elephants seem to have been used as a symbol of might and military power by these people. It seems that the entire region is being spoken of, including Aad/Thamud and Midean regions.]</p> <p><span dir="rtl">ألم يجعل كيدهم في تضليل</span></p> <p>Did not (His Requital) turn (them to naught) for their practices (that were consistantly) in gross error? [It is alleged that they were involved in various violations of human rights and other objectionable activities.]</p> <p><span dir="rtl">وأرسل عليهم طيرا أبابيل</span></p> <p>And (that your Lord first) sent upon them -one after another- (His) messengers: (Lot, Hud and Salih? Yet they cast His Warnings behind their backs as if they knew not!) [The use of the term “birds in flight” is definitely allegorical: Birds, such as pigeons, were used as messengers in ancient times for swift transport of letters/messages. One can call them the "high-speed courier service" of ancient times.]</p> <p><span dir="rtl">ترميهم بحجارة من سجيل</span></p> <p>(Hence, He ultimately) declared for them punishment from the inscribed (law of cause and effect!) [This is one of the most beautiful forms of expression, something so characteristic of the Quran. "Inscribed/marked stones fell on them" literally translates to "their own deeds came back to haunt them".]</p> <p><span dir="rtl">فجعلهم كعصف مأكول</span></p> <p>And so, turned them to (the likes of) fodder, consumed; (for only their remains can now be seen!) [Notice that <span dir="rtl">فجعلهم</span> points back to <span dir="rtl">ألم يجعل</span> ]</p> <p> </p> <p>References</p> <p>1. <a href="http://www.mnh.si.edu/EPIGRAPHY/e_pre-islamic/fig04_sabaean.htm">http://www.mnh.si.edu/EPIGRAPHY/e_pre-islamic/fig04_sabaean.htm</a></p> <p>2. <a href="http://www.free-minds.org/articles/science/language.htm">http://www.free-minds.org/articles/science/language.htm</a></p> <p>3. <a href="http://www.dacb.org/stories/ethiopia/_abraha.html">http://www.dacb.org/stories/ethiopia/_abraha.html</a></p> <p>4. <a href="http://nabataea.net/rcourts.html">http://nabataea.net/rcourts.html</a></p> <p>5. <a href="http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Anthropology/Petra">http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Anthropology/Petra</a></p> <p>6. John Keegan, Pimlico. History of Warfare. (1993) ISBN 0-679-73082-6</p> <p>7. Ahmad, Shabbir. Quran as It Explains Itself, 2nd Ed. Galaxy Publications, USA, 2005</p> <p>9. Bellamy, J. "A New Reading of the Namarah Inscription," Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1985, 105.1, 34</p> <p>8 Tabarī, Abū Ja`far Muhammad. The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah and the conquest of Syria and Palestine. Edited and translated by Yohanan Friedmann. SUNY series in Near Eastern studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.</p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">By Max Q : (<a href="mailto:h_y_p_n_o_t_i_x_2000@yahoo.ca">h_y_p_n_o_t_i_x_2000@yahoo.ca</a>)</p> </div> Tue, 30 Aug 2011 17:23:04 +0000 admin 134 at https://free-minds.org Why Are We Here? https://free-minds.org/why-are-we-here <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why Are We Here?</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-29T22:36:38+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 08/30/2011 - 06:36</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/life.jpg?itok=c_X_NMpA" width="299" height="168" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>One of the major questions that any person asks when exploring the subject of life and religion in general is the ‘why are we here’ question.</p> <p>Some people have claimed that if there is an afterlife and reward/punishment, then God is unfair since He is judging people who may not have wanted to be created or placed on Earth in the first place. Others have made claim that God is simply amusing Himself with our creation and then He gets to see us burn or move on to paradise like some characters in a video game. Others have taken an altogether different view and have claimed that we are here as the result of some intergalactic war/feud between God and Satan that took place eons ago and that Earth is the prison for Satan and his followers to redeem themselves back to the graces of the Almighty!</p> <p>As is usual when confronting any subject where we may not have all the answers, the best source to turn to for the absolute truth is God’s Scripture – the Quran.</p> <p><strong>In The Beginning</strong></p> <p>Our entire story begins here on Earth many millions of years ago where humankind were just another part of the ecological system having developed (as all creatures had) from the primordial soup of tiny microbes contained within the life giving waters, which, when mixed with the earth, began the evolution of life.</p> <p><em>“And God created every moving creature from water. So some of them move on their bellies, and some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. God creates whatever He wills. God is capable of all things.” (24:45)</em></p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/001.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 155px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>Fossil of 375 million year old fish providing the first evidence of evolution from water based animals to land based animals (<a href="http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2006/04.06/09-missinglink.html">see link</a> for more details)</em></p> <p>Species evolved, some became smarter, some became faster, and some simply became extinct.</p> <p><em>“We have created mankind from a structure derived from mud.” (23:12)</em></p> <p><em>“And God made you grow from the Earth as plants. Then He returns you to it, and He brings you out totally?” (71:17-18)</em></p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/002.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 196px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>The evolution of man</em></p> <p>Humankind developed as did millions of other creatures, each with its own distinct characteristics, developing and evolving based on the conditions that nature presented. Some, like mankind, developed into two legged creatures, while others came to walk on all fours, while others were set to crawl on their bellies.</p> <p><strong>An Offer Made</strong></p> <p><em>“We have offered <strong>the trust</strong> to the heavens and the Earth, and the mountains, but they refused to bear it, and were fearful of it. But the human being accepted it; he was transgressing, ignorant.” (33:72)</em></p> <p>The most significant event to occur in the history of our species was the acceptance of “the trust” which God offered to the land, the sky, and select inhabitants of Earth. This issue is mulled over quickly by most commentators and researchers of the Quran, however, it provides the key in answering the questions that are asked of life and our mission on Earth.</p> <p>God is telling us in the clearest terms that an offer was made which humanity accepted. Apparently, by reading through further we can see that it was not one person or a small group of people who made the decision to accept, but rather it was all the souls that will ever come into being (every single one of us) that made this choice collectively.</p> <p><em>“And your Lord took for the children of Adam from their backs, their progeny; and He made them witness over themselves: “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes, we bear witness.” Thus you cannot say on the Day of Resurrection that you were unaware of this.” (7:172)</em></p> <p>We (our souls) were all part of the choice and thus not one single person can claim of the Day of Judgment that we did not know or were not aware. Our consciousnesses may not be aware of this ancient history of our species, but our subconscious and our soul do and they are the ones that drive us towards meeting our commitment to the Almighty.</p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/003.jpg" style="width: 150px; height: 157px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>The God Module</em></p> <p>In an interesting study of epilepsy, scientists came across an unexpected find. A part of the brain was identified (later dubbed as the "God Module") which carried a built-in awareness of God and which became stimulated during acts of meditation and prayer. The findings, published in 1997, were to provide the answer to why all humans throughout history and irrespective of culture or geography have always had knowledge of a "Supreme Being" or the sense of searching for "God". The study also found that the activity of this module would cause a series of experiences ranging from hearing voices claimed to be from higher beings as well as hallucinations and paranormal activity.</p> <blockquote><p>"Findings seem to point to a region of the brain commonly referred to as the 'God Spot' or 'God Module', that when stimulated creates hallucinations that are interpreted as mystical or spiritual experiences. This 'spot' is stimulated during meditation and prayer and is affected by electromagnetic fields and epilepsy. The resulting hallucinations may be the cause of mystical, spiritual and paranormal experiences as they can give feelings such as a presence in the room or an out of body experience. In the case of epileptics, this may be the reason for many of them becoming obsessed with religion. For those who experience the stimulation it is explained related to their own personal beliefs; a visit from an angel or lost loved one, an extraterrestrial encounter, a higher plane of consciousness or a visit from God."</p> <p><a href="http://atheistempire.com/reference/brain/main.html/">http://atheistempire.com/reference/brain/main.html/</a></p> </blockquote> <p><strong>What is the Trust?</strong></p> <p>To understand the Trust, we must first explore what makes humans different from all other Earthly creation. The first answer to normally pop out is that humans are ‘smarter’ than most other creation and hence it is our mind which makes us different.</p> <p>While this answer is true to a large extent, it can be pointed out that a species which is destroying the Earth with pollution, hunting the wildlife into extinction, using up the natural resources faster than they can regenerate, and killing each other over greed and power and land is not at all what an intelligent being would call ‘smart’.</p> <p>Actually, what makes us unique is an element called ‘Spirit’ which only humankind was given access to by the Almighty.</p> <p><em>“For your Lord said to the angels: ‘I am creating a human being from clay. So when I have evolved him, and breathed into him from My Spirit (Rouh), then you shall yield to him.” (38:71-72)</em></p> <p><em>"And your Lord said to the angels: “I am creating a human being from a hardened clay. So when I perfect him, and blow of My Spirit (Rouh) in him, you shall yield to him." (15:28-29)</em></p> <p>In modern times, the word Spirit (Rouh) has been mistakenly confused with and used to mean the same as the word Soul (Nafs). However, we can clearly see that the two elements are not one in the same and that the Soul and Spirit are two distinct items.</p> <p><em>"And the horn is blown on the promised Day. And every soul (Nafs) is brought, being driven, and with a witness." (50:20-21) </em></p> <p><em>"God seizes the souls (Anfus) at the time of their death; and for those that have not died, during their sleep. He then keeps those that have been overtaken by death, and He sends the others back until a predetermined time. In that are signs for a people who will think." (39:42)</em></p> <p>The Soul/Nafs is found in every living creature (the life-force). It is that part that resides in a person makes them who they are and is taken by God when they pass away.</p> <p>All Creatures/Creation = Tangible Entity (Body) + Life Force (Soul)</p> <p>As for humankind, there is the unique and special element we have access to, the Spirit, which makes us different from all other creation.</p> <p><em>“And they ask you concerning the Spirit. Say: ‘The Spirit is from the authority of my Lord; and the knowledge you were given was but very little.’” (17:85)</em></p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/004.png" style="width: 250px; height: 156px" /></p> <p>The Spirit is best defined as a medium which contains authority and knowledge granted directly from the Creator. It is not the Creator per se, but it is a direct extension of His authority and knowledge allowed to be accessed and used by humankind while we are here on Earth.</p> <p><strong><em>Spirit = the Trust</em></strong></p> <p>The offer that was given and accepted by our species was simply as follows: Humankind is to be given the opportunity to significantly evolve by having access to The Spirit, in return, God will upgrade those who have successfully managed to improve themselves to an eternal paradise and an eternal life, while those who misuse the gift and fail to improve will be destined to an eternal hell and eternal limbo (neither living nor dead).</p> <p>The other select creatures as well as the earth, sky, and mountains found the offer of having access to the Spirit in order to evolve to an eternal paradise or eternal hell to be too high a risk, and thus chose to remain in their natural state of being or not being without any consequences.</p> <p><strong>The Objection Of Satan</strong></p> <p><em>“And We created you, then We shaped you, then We said to the angels: “Yield to Adam;” so they yielded except for Satan, he was not of those who yielded. He said: “What has prevented you from yielding when I have ordered you?” He said: “I am far better than him, You created me from fire and created him from clay!” (7:11-12)</em></p> <p><em>“And We said to the angels: “Yield to Adam.” So they all yielded except for Satan, he was of the Jinn, so he disobeyed the order of his Lord. Will you take him and his progeny as allies besides Me, while they are your enemy? Miserable for the wicked is the substitute!” (18:50)</em></p> <p>When access to the Spirit was granted to humankind, and when God gave His command that all His creation (including the angels) were to yield to the authority of the Spirit bestowed upon our species, Satan, who represented the energy beings known as “Jinn” objected to this action and objected to God’s choice in granting the Spirit and authority to man.</p> <p>Satan was arrogant in his thinking that the element from which he was created (fire) was more superior to man’s lowly physical body, and hence he believed it was his race that should have been given the opportunity to have God’s gift and not the humans.</p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/005.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 185px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>Depiction of Satan as an energy being</em></p> <p>As a result of this disobedience and arrogance, Satan was destined to an eternal pain in Hell. However, before the judgment was carried out, Satan pleaded that his sentencing be delayed until the humans stand judgment for the development (or lack thereof) of their own souls.</p> <p><em>“He said: “Descend from it, it is not for you to be arrogant here; depart, for you are disgraced.” He said: “Grant me respite until the Day they are resurrected?” He said: “You are granted.” He said: “For that which You have caused me to be misled, I will stalk for them on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from between their hands, and from behind them, and from their right, and from their left; You will find most of them are unappreciative.” He said: “Get out from this, you are despised and banished. As for those of them who follow you, I will fill Hell with you all!” (7:13-18)</em></p> <p>Since Satan and his followers were not given the access to Spirit, there is no possibility for them to be rewarded as man was with an admission to a higher plain (Paradise). There is only two options that exist for Satan and his kind: to be placed in Hell at the time the Spirit is to be returned to God, or, to be rewarded by not going to Hell and to continue existing as they had before the incident of Satan’s objection to God’s command.</p> <p>Also, one major restriction God placed on the Jinn (energy beings) was their ability to roam the universes unabated. The new laws placed physical boundaries which would keep the Jinn in the dark as to gaining knowledge of the future which they could then use to their own benefit/schemes.</p> <p><em>“And we touched the heavens, but found it full of powerful guards and projectiles. And we used to sit in it in places of listening, but anyone who sits now finds a projectile seeking him.” (72:8-9)</em></p> <p><strong>Paradise Lost</strong></p> <p>As a mercy from God, once humankind was granted access to the Spirit, the first recipients (identified as Adam and his mate) were made to live in a higher plain (a paradise) where they could nourish their souls without having to worry about the physical requirements of food or water or heat or cold.</p> <p><em>“So We said: “O Adam, this is an enemy to you and your mate. So do not let him take you out from the paradise, else you will have hardship. You will have in it that you will not go hungry nor need clothes. And you will have in it that you will not go thirsty nor suffer from heat.” (20:117-119) </em></p> <p>However, upon being allowed into this higher plain, Adam and his mate were warned not to eat from a specific tree which would block their connection to the Spirit and cause them to no longer be able to remain in the earthly paradise.</p> <p><em>“But the devil whispered to him, he said: “O Adam, shall I lead you to the tree of immortality and a kingdom which will not waste away?” So they both ate from it, and their bodies became apparent to them, and they began to place leaves on themselves from the paradise. Adam had disobeyed his Lord, and had gone astray.” (20:120-121)</em></p> <p>Unfortunately, as we all by now know, Adam and his mate did eat from the tree and thus were disconnected from the Spirit and were made aware of their lowly physical bodies and needs.</p> <p>Since Adam and his mate were no longer in constant connection with the Spirit, they had to leave the earthly paradise they were being served in and move down to the lower lands where they had to clothe, feed, and fend for themselves. The earthly paradise where Adam and his mate could have spent their entire lives in purification was now off limits due to the taint of the tree.</p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/006.JPG" style="width: 118px; height: 300px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>Depiction by early Renaissance artist Masaccio of Adam’s expulsion from the paradise</em></p> <p>However, not all was lost. God in His continuing mercy forgave Adam for his mistake and taught Adam the method and words that would connect him back to the Spirit (though not the same permanent connection that Adam and his mate were able to enjoy before being tainted by the tree).</p> <p><em>“Adam then received words from His Lord, so He forgave him; He is the Forgiver, the Merciful. We said: “Descend from it all of you, so when the guidance comes from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, they will have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.” (2:37-38)</em></p> <p><strong>Help From Above</strong></p> <p>God in His infinite mercy did not abandon the descendents of Adam and leave us to fumble for the answers which will guide us to the straight path, or leave us to be manipulated and influenced by Satan and his followers who harbor an intense hatred and envy of our race.</p> <p><em>“’O you tribes of Jinn and humans, did not messengers come to you from amongst you and relate to you My revelations, and warn you of the meeting of this Day?’ They said: ‘Yes, we bear witness upon ourselves;’ and the worldly life deceived them, and they bore witness on themselves that they were rejecters.” (6:130)</em></p> <p>God chose to interfere as and when He saw fit. God chose to support us by communicating the message of why we are here and what we need to do to move on to the next level through people that He has selected. Such people are most assuredly ones who were of a noble and purer nature and were thus able to reach to the Spirit and became recipients of messages and even Scriptures directly from the Lord of the Worlds.</p> <p align="center"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/beginning/007.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 187px" /></p> <p align="center"><em>Artist depiction of Moses with the commandments from God</em></p> <p><em>“And We gave Moses the Scripture, and after him We sent the messengers. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and We supported Him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that every time a messenger comes to you with what your souls do not desire, you become arrogant? A group of them you deny, and a group of them you kill!” (2:87)</em></p> <p>The messengers that have been sent varied in strength based on their ability to connect with the Spirit. Some, like Jesus, were born purified and thus were able to access the very core of the Spirit (the Holy Spirit) and perform great miracles by God’s grace, while others were simply able to transit the warnings to their people in the hope that they would listen and save themselves.</p> <p><strong>Develop Your Soul</strong></p> <p><em>“O you soul which is peaceful. Return to your Lord happy and content. And enter in amongst My servants. And enter My Paradise.” (89:27-30)</em></p> <p>We are here on Earth to develop and purify our souls to the point where we can be accepted by God to make the quantum leap to the higher plains of eternal bliss. No longer were we to be primal animals only seeking to satisfy the bodily functions of food and procreation.</p> <p>Some of the methods that have been described in the Quran for humankind to achieve the development of the soul include, but are not limited to, the following:</p> <p>1. See beyond the physical and the material</p> <p><em>“And it is not your money or your children that will bring you closer to Us, but only those who believe and do good work, they will receive double the reward for their works, and they will reside in the high dwellings in peace.” (34:37)</em></p> <p>What we do with our bodies and our money are irrelevant if they do not touch our soul in a positive way. This life is not about who obtains power or prestige or wealth, rather, it is about what we do with our lives to benefit and nourish our souls.</p> <p>We can see how the Prophet Mohammed was reprimanded for making this exact mistake when he preferred to entertain the man who was rich over the man who had the physical disability of being blind in his sight (see 80:1-10)</p> <p>2. Nourish your soul</p> <p><em>“And the scales on that Day will be the truth. Whoever has heavy weights, then these are the successful ones. And whoever has light weights, then these are the ones who lost their souls for what they transgressed of Our revelations.” (7:8-9)</em></p> <p>The scales on judgment day will seek out every person and measure how well or not they have developed and nourished their souls. The soul is nourished by humbling ourselves, standing for justice, avoiding sin, and continuously doing good works (see 11:23, 16:90, 29:7, 42:37)</p> <p>3. Seek help through connecting to the Spirit</p> <p><em>“And seek help through patience, and through the Salat/Connection. It is a difficult thing, but not so for the humble.” (2:45)</em></p> <p>Our access to the Spirit is possibly the most powerful tool we have at our disposal to meet the challenge of developing our souls in preparation for judgment day. Granted that our species link to the Spirit was tainted by eating from the forbidden tree, however, God has taught us the words and the method to re-establish an open connection with the Spirit in what is known as “<a href="http://free-minds.org/salat">Salat</a>”. Such is a gift not to be turned away.</p> <p> </p> <p>May the Lord God accept our prayer…</p> <p><em>“God does not burden a soul beyond its means. For it is what it earns, and against it is what it earns. ‘Our Lord, do not mind us if we forget or make mistakes; our Lord, do not place a burden upon us as You have placed upon those before us; our Lord, do not place upon us what we cannot bear; pardon us, and forgive us, and have mercy on us; You are our patron, so grant us victory over the disbelieving people.’” (2:286)</em></p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter"><a href="/sites/default/files/beginning.pdf">Click here </a>for PDF version of this article</p> <p class="rtecenter">By Layth Al-Shaiban (<a href="mailto:laytth@hotmail.com">laytth@hotmail.com</a>)</p> </div> Mon, 29 Aug 2011 22:36:38 +0000 admin 124 at https://free-minds.org The History of "Amen" https://free-minds.org/history-amen <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The History of &quot;Amen&quot;</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-24T21:18:46+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 08/25/2011 - 05:18</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/amen.jpg?itok=qN3A-Wz8" width="202" height="249" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Most of us who have had the privilege of attending a Friday congregation would immediately realize the importance of the word "Amen" or "Aameen" in the life of a traditional Muslim. For those of us who are not familiar with its usage, the Muslims are required to say "Amen" after reciting Surah al-Fatihah and after completion of their prayers (Dua). In fact, this is the only word spoken aloud during a Friday congregation by the traditional Muslims after the Imam completes the recitation of Surah al-Fatihah. The purpose of this article is an attempt to find out it's meaning and trace back its origins in ancient history.</p> <!--break--><p><strong>Why do Muslims say Amen </strong></p> <p>It is a known fact (well almost) that this word can be found now where in the Quran. So why do the traditional Muslims hold such importance to a word that is not even mentioned in the final scripture? Yes, you guessed right, this word can be found in Hadith, the second source of religious (dis)information for the traditional Muslims after the Quran. In Sahih-al-Bukhari Vol. 6/Ch. 2 English translation by Dr. M. Muhsin Khan, we find yet another gem from the pen of Abu Huraira</p> <p>Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "When the Imam says: 'Ghair-il-Maghdubi 'Alaihim Walad-Dallin [i.e. not the path of those who earn Your anger, not the path of those who went astray ' (1:7)], then you must say, 'Amin', for if one's utterance of 'Amin' coincides with that of the angels then his past sins will be forgiven."</p> <p>The obvious conclusion of this Hadith is that the focus must be on "timing" rather than content. I digress ...</p> <p>So why would the Prophet require from the Muslims to utter a word at the end of the most recited Surah, that is not mentioned even once in the Quran. Moreover, what kind of message was the Prophet sending to the Muslims by asking them to "time" the saying of Amen with that of the angels in order to get their sins forgiven? The Prophet could not have uttered such a blasphemy, for we learn from Surah al-A'raf verse 188 that even he, albeit a messenger of God, was unaware of his own fate.</p> <p>[7:188] Say: "I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as God willeth. If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me: I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith."</p> <p>Furthermore, from the Quran we also learn that God commanded Muhammad not to say or extrapolate anything by himself. His only duty was to deliver the Quran.</p> <p>[69:43] It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds.</p> <p> [69:44] And if the apostle were to invent any sayings in Our name,</p> <p> [69:45] We should certainly seize him by his right hand,</p> <p> [69:46] And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart:</p> <p> [69:47] Nor could any of you withhold him (from Our wrath).</p> <p> (Translation A. Yusuf Ali)</p> <p>The only sensible explanation is that this Hadith, like many others, is a lie attributed to Prophet Muhammad.</p> <p><strong>Origins of Amen </strong></p> <p>This word must have found its way into traditional Islam from either Christian or Jewish sources almost 200-300 years after the death of the Prophet when the Hadith books came into existence. The fact that "Amen" came from Jewish sources into Christianity is acknowledged in the Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1 1907</p> <p>"The word Amen is one of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church ... 'So frequent was this Hebrew word in the mouth of Our Saviour', observes the catechism of the Council of Trent, "that it pleased the Holy Ghost to have it perpetuated in the Church of God."</p> <p>It is ironical that the Holy Ghost (spiritual form of God) would ask to implement something after hearing it from The Saviour (Jesus Christ)!</p> <p>The word "Amen" is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as an interjection as well as a noun meaning 'so be it' and uttered at the end of the prayer or hymn etc. The root letters AMN hold the following connotations in modern Hebrew: educate, train, true, trustworthy, confirm, confidence, faithfulness, treaty. This root word appears to be synonymous with the Arabic root word Alif-Mim-Nun. A look under this root word in Lughat-ul-Quran (Quran Lexicon) by G. A. Parwez 4th Edition 1998 confirmed that there is no explicit mention of "Amen" or "Aameen" in the Quran.</p> <p><strong>Links to Paganism </strong></p> <p>A traditional Muslim may argue that although "Amen" is not mentioned in the Quran, the Prophet did ask us to say it in our prayers. Moreover, since there is nothing wrong with it's meaning it should be acceptable. However, this assumption can have serious implications if we trace back this word's origin in history, for we find that the word "Amen" has pagan idol worship connotations. In the Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition 2001it is written</p> <p>"Amon or Amen, Egyptian deity. He was originally the chief god of Thebes; he and his wife Mut and their son Khensu were the divine Theban triad of deities. Amon grew increasingly important in Egypt, and eventually he (identified as Amon Ra; see Ra) became the supreme deity. He was identified with the Greek Zeus (the Roman Jupiter). Amon's most celebrated shrine was at Siwa in the Libyan desert; the oracle of Siwa later rivaled those of Delphi and Dodona. He is frequently represented as a ram or as a human with a ram's head."</p> <p>The Egypt Travel and Antiquities Guide in their article about "Amen" describes the meaning of the name as follows</p> <p>"Of the attributes ascribed to Amen in the Ancient Empire nothing is known, but, if we accept the meaning "hidden" which is usually given to his name, we must conclude that he was the personification of the hidden and unknown creative power which was associated with the primeval abyss, gods in the creation of the world, and all that is in it. The word or root amen, certainly means "what is hidden," "what is not seen," "what cannot be seen," and the like, and this fact is proved by scores of examples which may be collected from texts of all periods. In hymns to Amen we often read that he is "hidden to his children, "and "hidden to gods and men," and it has been stated that these expressions only refer to the "hiding," i.e., "setting" of the sun each evening, and that they are only to be understood in a physical sense, and to mean nothing more than the disappearance of the god Amen from the sight of men at the close of day. Now, not only is the god himself said to be "hidden," but his name also is "hidden," and his form, or similitude, is said to be "unknown;" these statements show that "hidden," when applied to Amen, the great god, has reference to something more than the "sun which has disappeared below the horizon," and that it indicates the god who cannot be seen with the mortal eyes, and who is invisible, as well as inscrutable, to gods as well as men."</p> <p>It may be conjectured that this "hidden god" is no other than Satan who has managed to successfully elude not only the Muslims but also the Jews and Christians as well to this day!</p> <p>The fact that the worship of "Amen" and "Amen-Ra" had gained popularity not only amongst the Egyptians but the foreigners living in the region as well during that time can be appreciated from the following quote from the article about "Amen."</p> <p>"The worship of Amen-Ra spread through all the country both of the north and south of Thebes, and the monuments prove that it made its way into all the dominions of Egypt in Syria, and the Nubia, and in the Oases. In the Upper Egypt its centers were Thebes, Herakeopolis Magna ; in Lower Egypt they were Memphis, Sais, Xois, Metelis, Heliopolis, Babylon, Mendes, Thmuis, Diospolis, Butus, and the Island of Khemmis ; in the Libyan desert the Oases of Kenemet, {i.e., Farafra}, and the great Oasis of Jupiter Ammon ; in Nubia, Wadi Sabua, Abu Simbel, Napata, and Meroe ; and in Syria at several places which were called Diospolis."</p> <p>Amen, his wife, Mut and son Khensu represented the Theban Triad, the sacred family of Thebes. Amen was known to be "King of the gods" during the period of the New Kingdom in Egypt in "1550-1070" B.C. when Thebes was the capital of Egypt, and it was during this period that the Jews were slaves there. During their 400 years of slavery it is obvious that they lost their monotheistic beliefs and fell into Egyptian paganism. If during the 40 year exodus they could build a talking golden calf idol, is it too far fetched to assume that the word "Amen" crept into their religious rituals-- a word named after an Egyptian god which not only have the Jews failed to get rid of to this day but have also passed on to the Christians and Muslims.</p> <p>To the skeptic, who may argue against the connection between the Egyptian god "Amen" and this word used in its present day meaning, I quote the ending paragraph under the heading "Amen" from the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol 1 1907, which either intentionally or unintentionally acknowledges this link</p> <p>"Finally, we may note that the word Amen occurs not infrequently in early Christian inscriptions, and that it was often introduced into anathemas and gnostic spells. Moreover, as the Greek letters which form Amen according to their numerical values total 99 (alpha=1, mu=40, epsilon=8, nu=50), this number often appears in inscriptions, especially of Egyptian origin, and a sort of magical efficacy seems to have been attributed to this symbol. It should be mentioned that the word Amen is still employed in the ritual both of Jews and Mohammedans."</p> <p><strong>Conclusions </strong></p> <p>There are number of conclusions that can be drawn from this article. First, There is no mention of the word "Amen" in the Quran and unfortunately this word infiltrated into Islam through Hadith. Although an average Muslim openly acknowledges that "Amen" is a word also used by Christian and Jews in their prayers, he or she makes the implicit assumption that it is a Quranic word that can also be found in the Bible and Torah. It may also be argued that there is nothing wrong with saying "Amen" in our prayers given its present day meaning. However, the intelligent reader must ask him or herself the question whether he or she wants to continue using it now fully knowing the dubious pagan connotations of this word? Can't we find some other word to express our conviction to God Almighty?</p> <p>Another natural outcome of this article is that it openly questions the self-rewarding philosophy of the traditional Muslims, largely encouraged in Hadith. Now where in the Quran do we find a verse, which suggests that we can redeem ourselves in this world by merely uttering some "magic" words. It is only through sincere study of the Quran that one can hope to find peace and happiness in this world and in the hereafter.</p> <p>Lastly, a word of caution for those who tread the dangerous "middle ground" and say that we believe in only the "Sahih" (True) Hadith. After reading this article, can one really separate cream from the milk when it comes to distinguishing between the true and false Hadith? It is therefore incumbent upon all of us to verify any information we receive.</p> <p>[17:36] And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).</p> <p>I hope the intelligent reader will reject all secondary sources and uphold the ONE and ONLY source required for guidance -- The Quran.</p> <p>[6:106] Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord, there is no god except He, and disregard the idol worshipers.</p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">Copyright Azfar Samin (e-mail: <a href="mailto:god1quran1@yahoo.com">god1quran1@yahoo.com</a>)</p> </div> Wed, 24 Aug 2011 21:18:46 +0000 admin 84 at https://free-minds.org Who Was Imhotep? https://free-minds.org/who-was-imhotep <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Who Was Imhotep?</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-24T19:48:46+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 08/25/2011 - 03:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/imhotepp.jpg?itok=hLRuShbR" width="201" height="214" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman"><p></p></font></font></font></p> <p><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">This article has been copied from the site of <a href="http://www.wyattmuseum.com">Ron Wyatt </a>. It has been shortened for the purpose of this site.</font></font></font></p> <hr style="width: 196px" /><p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Imhotep In the 3rd Dynasty, there appears on the scene a most incredible individual in the ancient records- a man called "Imhotep". For many years, Egyptologists had doubted that Imhotep had been a real person- they found it rather difficult to believe the various accomplishments credited to him in the accounts written over a thousand years after he was supposed to have lived. At times, Imhotep has been termed the "Leonardo da Vinci" of ancient Egypt, but in fact he was more than that. Da Vinci gained the reputation of a genius- Imhotep was eventually elevated to the status of a god.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">In Egypt's long list of "gods", very few were ever once living among them. Imhotep was. Manetho wrote that "during his [Djoser of the 3rd Dynasty] reign lived Imouthes [i.e. Imhotep], who, because of his medical skill has the reputation of Asclepius [the Greek god of medicine] among the Egyptians and who was the inventor of the art of building with hewn stone." It was this statement that caused the specialists to doubt the existence of a real man named Imhotep. But in 1926, the question was settled once and for all- Imhotep was a real man. When excavations were carried out at the Step Pyramid at Sakkara, fragments of a statue of pharaoh Djoser were found. The base was inscribed with the names of Djoser and of "Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder, the Sculptor, the Maker of Stone Vases...".</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Inscription of the 7 Year Famine Joseph's main position was that of a prime minister and Imhotep appears to be the first who could boast of such a broad range of authority in ancient Egypt. There are records of many, many viziers throughout Egyptian history- but the first evidence which connects Imhotep with Joseph is an amazing inscription found carved on a large rock on the island of Sihiel just below the First Cataract of the Nile. This inscription claims to be a copy of a document written by Djoser in the 18th year of his reign,- this copy being written over 1,000 years after the events it claims to be relating. It goes on to tell of a 7 year famine and 7 years of plenty. Let's look at a few passages from this inscription, keeping in mind that this was written a millenium after the events it claims to be describing.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">It begins with the great distress of the pharaoh: "I was in distress on the Great Throne..."</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">In the inscription, the pharaoh is troubled about a famine and asks Imhotep who the god of the Nile is, so he can approach him about the drought: "... I asked him who was the Chamberlain,...Imhotep, the son of Ptah... `What is the birthplace of the Nile? Who is the god there? Who is the god?'" Imhotep answers: "I need the guidance of Him who presides over the fowling net,..." In the Egyptian text, Imhotep is termed "the son of Ptah", who was the Egyptian god known as the "creator" of everything else, including the other gods.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">In the inscription, Imhotep answers the pharaoh about the god of the Nile and tells him where he lives. But, the next thing in the inscription tells that when the king slept, the Nile god Khnum, revealed himself to him in a dream and promised the Nile would pour forth her waters and the land would yield abundantly for 7 years, after a 7 year drought.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The inscription then goes on to record Djoser's promise to the Nile god, Khnum, in which the people were to be taxed 1/10 of everything, except for the priests of the "house of the god", who would be exempted.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">It is believed that this inscription was written during the 2nd century BC, by the priests of Khnum for the purpose of justifying their claim of some land privileges. Part of the inscription states the pharaoh dedicated some of the land and taxation to the god. But, this isn't the only inscription with this "tale"- there is a similar inscription on the Isle of Philae, only this one has the priests of Isis stating that Djoser made the same gift to their god for the same purpose.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">"Imhotep, the Voice of the God, Im (I AM)"</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The name, Imhotep, in ancient Egyptian is translated to mean "the voice (or mouth) of Im"; however, there is no record of a god in Egypt called "Im". But, we all know the God, "I AM": EXO 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. God told Moses to tell the pharaoh that "I AM" had sent him because "I AM" was the name by which the Egyptians had known Joseph's God. Could "Im" have been "I AM"? The name the Bible states that was given to Joseph by the pharaoh, "Zaphenath-paneah", has been translated by some to mean, "the God lives; the God speaks". Since we do not fully understand the meaning of the Egyptian "hotep", it is quite possible that the translation of Imhotep ("The voice of I AM) is identical to the Biblical name of Joseph ("the God lives; the God speaks).</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Imhotep, the Physician Imhotep is the earliest physician whose historical records survive, and although Joseph isn't mentioned as being a physician, the Bible gives one very important clue to this: GEN 50:2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. Here, the physicians are specificly stated to be under Joseph. But later, when Imhotep became established as the "god of healing", it is the manner in which he healed that ties him directly to Joseph. Ancient Greek writings mention a great sanctuary at Memphis where people came from everywhere to seek cures from Imhotep. They would pray to him, make offerings and then spend the night in this sanctuary, which was a sort of Lourdes of ancient Egypt. While sleeping, the god, Imhotep, was said to come to people in their dreams and cure them. Is there a connection between Joseph and dreams?</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The Wisdom of Imhotep Imhotep was also revered for his wisdom. In several inscriptions from much later times, reference is made to the "words of Imhotep". For example, in "Song from the Tomb of King Intef", we read: "I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hardedef...", and it goes on to explain that their "sayings" were recited in his day. To date, nothing has been found of Imhotep's works, however there are several works of "wise sayings" attributed to one "Ptahotep", who is only known as a vizier of a king from the 5th dynasty. However, there are 5 known "Ptahoteps", all viziers to pharaohs of the 5th dynasty, all priests of Heliopolis, or "On".</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Evidence seems to indicate that after Imhotep, the trend among viziers became patterned after him, with these later viziers taking credit for Imhotep's actual deeds and his writings- a practice which the Egyptians, among others, were notorious for. Now, let's do some assuming for a moment- let's assume that Joseph wrote a collection of wise sayings, of course, inspired by God. Because of his great favor with the king, these came to be revered by the scribes and people. His fame as a sage spread throughout Egypt and became the standard of wisdom. We know that his wisdom came from the true God of Abraham. Would it not be expected that Joseph would pass on his wisdom from God to those around him?</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">After Joseph's death, others copied his wise sayings and took credit for them, perhaps adding a bit of their own and changing things to suit them. As these sayings were passed down through several generations, instead of being attributed to Imhotep, they were attributed to Ptahotep, "the voice of" the Egyptian creator, "Ptah". Thousands of years later, several papyruses are found which purport to be copies of "The Instruction of Ptahotep".</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Could this scenario have happened? There are 2 particular statements in Ptahotep's writings which indicate that this is exactly what happened. At the end of these manuscripts, the writer states that he is near death, having lived 110 years and that he received honors from the king exceeding those of the ancestors,- in other words, he received the most honors ever given a man by a pharaoh. And, we know that Joseph died at the age of 110 years. Well, it gets even more familiar as we examine the text of these manuscripts.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">They begin as Solomon's Proverbs begin, as instructions to his son, with the admonition they are "profitable to him who will hear" but "woe to him who would neglect them". Keep in mind that the Originator of Joseph's wisdom was also the Originator of Solomon's wisdom, and the parallels between the 2 are undeniable. We are told in the Bible that Solomon knew many, many proverbs: 1KI 4:30 And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. 31 For he was wiser... and his fame was in all nations round about. 32 And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. This statement indicates that the concept of a "proverb" was known to the ancient peoples. We aren't told if Solomon was the author of all of these proverbs or whether they were passed down to him from his ancestors. There are examples of proverbs in many ancient civilizations, but the only ones which Solomon recorded by inspiration and today appear in the Bible are very similar to the ancient Egyptian "wisdom literature" which can be traced back to Imhotep. This doesn't mean that Solomon copied from the ancient Egyptians- it means that the God of His Fathers gave the same wisdom to his ancestors, who included Joseph, that He gave to Solomon.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The Bible records the fact that Joseph even taught the pharaoh's "senators". And while this wisdom was revered by the Egyptians and carried down through the ages by their sages who copied some of his writings, (claiming it as their own), some of these same "wisdom sayings" were recorded by some of Joseph's descendants over 700 years later, and ultimately were preserved for us in the Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Psalms. But Joseph's wisdom didn't originate with him- it was divinely inspired, as was Solomon's wisdom, David's wisdom and the wisdom of all of God's people.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Imhotep Appointed Later in Djoser's Reign We know that the pharaoh of Joseph had been king for an unknown period of time when Joseph was finally brought to him to interpret his dream. And the evidence shows that Imhotep was not Djoser's vizier earlier in his reign- in fact, no mention is made at all of Imhotep on Djoser's earlier monuments. Imhotep was not the architect of Djoser's tomb built at Beit Khallaf, which was probably undertaken soon after he became king. In this earlier tomb, which is similar to the preceding dynasties as Sakkara, there are clay sealings of jars which record Djoser's name, his mother's name, and the names of numerous other officials from his reign- but not Imhotep's, which indicates that he hadn't been appointed to his position yet. The standard practice was for the pharaoh always to appoint men to office as soon as he took the throne, with family members being the highest ranked.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">All available information about Imhotep continues to point to his identification with Joseph. For example, in some inscriptions, his titles indicate that he was not a member of the royal family, but a "self-made man". This was unique because the son of the pharaoh was usually the vizier. Imhotep was also the "priest of Heliopolis", the Biblical "On". Now in the story of Joseph, we learn that his father-in-law was the "priest of On" at the time of Joseph's marriage: GEN 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. Since Asenath was old enough to marry Joseph at this time, it follows that her father was probably at least in his forties. And in ancient Egypt, the people didn't live too much longer than about 50. At his death or disability, it follows that his son-in-law would be assigned his position, especially if that son-in-law were so highly regarded by the pharaoh as Joseph was. If Joseph became the "Priest of On", was he being unfaithful to the true God? Absolutely not- the pharaoh had recognized the power of the God of Joseph, and even though the Egyptians remained idolaters, Joseph made them aware of his God and was unswerving in his loyalty to Him. The "Priest of On" was not termed the priest of a particular god- but the title instead seems to indicate a position of high honor and political importance.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Imhotep, the Architect of the 1st Pyramid It was Imhotep who is credited with having designed the first pyramid and began building with hewn stone instead of all mud brick. If we look at ancient Egyptian history, we can see evidence which shows that it was during the time of Djoser that Egypt became a truly great nation- after all, it had gathered the wealth of all the surrounding nations by selling them grain during the famine. And during the 7 years of plenty, the people, under Joseph's wise guidance, began to organize a great administrative center which would handle the selling of the grain to all the surrounding nations. A large complex was built which contained the future burial site of the pharaoh but also included a walled in center which contained huge grain bins. There was only one entrance into this center and there was an outside entrance into the system of storage bins.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The Step Pyramid complex at Sakkara is the complex which we will now discuss. At the grain storage bins surrounding the Step Pyramid, the first ever built, and its complex, is a very beautiful and elaborate wall. At the main entrance on the east wall at the southern end, one enters a long hall of 40 columns- 20 on each side. Each column is connected to the main wall by a perpendicular wall, forming small "rooms" between each column. As you exit this colonade and walk straight ahead, you come to a series of very large pits which extend deep into the earth. These are extremely large in size- much larger than any burial chambers; they are all centrally accessible by a connecting tunnel, extend to well above ground level, and one has a staircase extending down to the bottom. For this reason, we know that they were not built as tombs- if they were, they would have been constructed underground and they certainly would not have been so incredibly large. These massive structures extend to well above ground level, which indicates that they were not hidden, as were tombs. Because the ancient Egyptians buried their dead with so much valuable material and provisions for their "afterlife", plundering of tombs was always their biggest fear. Therefore, we know that these massive pits had another purpose. Also, in all the other ancient cities, whenever large bins such as these were uncovered, they were recognized as "storage bins", but in Egypt, the scholars tend to term everything they find a "tomb".</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">However, in the pharaoh's burial complex under the pyramid, we find matching bins for the king and his family's afterlife- and in these bins were found grain and other food stuffs. In the Biblical account, we learn that Joseph appointed men throughout the land of Egypt to oversee the gathering and storing of the grain in all the cities: GEN 41:34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. 35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities. Joseph had given this plan to the pharaoh prior to his appointment as vizier or prime minister, and since it would be impossible for him to oversee the gathering and storing for the entire country, we know he implemented this plan. We also know that when the famine began and the Egyptians began to cry for food, they were told to go to Joseph and do whatever he said, which indicates that he gave the orders for the distribution of the grain: GEN 41:55 And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph; what he saith to you, do. 56 And the famine was over all the face of the earth: and Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">But when the foreign peoples came to purchase grain, we learn that they went directly to Joseph: GEN 42:6 And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to all the people of the land: and Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth. Joseph's brothers came directly to Joseph in person. We believe it is Sakkara to which they came- where the remains of this fantastic complex are preserved. And it was here that Djoser had 11 extremely large pits constructed which can only be grain storage bins. Every city had stored grain from its region, but at this complex at Sakarra, we have these massive pits which would have stored an incredible amount of grain- more than a single city would have needed. At the entrance to this complex, as we described earlier, there are 40 small cubicles, each just the right size to hold a single person who could administer the receipt of payment from people coming to purchase grain. There could have been several "cashiers" of each language group to handle the purchases of those who spoke the various languages. Of course, the Egyptologists think all these little cubicles were for statues, however, no pedestals were found in the remains, which is a very important point, because these statues were always erected on pedestals. Statues may vanish, but pedestals remain. The design of the 11 pits is impressive. There are 11 of them, with only one containing a very elaborate stairway extending all the way to the bottom. All the pits are connected to each other by a subterranean tunnel- the pits were filled and the tops were sealed with wooden timbers and stone. And, all of the grain could be accessed from one entrance- and there is one entrance into the pits from outside the wall enclosure of the complex. Last of all, grain was found in the floor of these pits, which has been explained by Egyptologists as having been from foods buried with deceased who were buried there- however, no evidence of burials was ever found in these pits.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">When Joseph's brothers came to him for grain, they talked to Joseph and paid for the grain. When they received the grain, it was already in sacks: GEN 42:25 Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give them provision for the way: and thus did he unto them. 26 And they laded their asses with the corn, and departed thence. 27 And as one of them opened his sack to give his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money; for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth. The complex at Sakkara is unique- nothing like it has ever been found. It was described by William Hayes as being a "veritable city in itself, planned and executed as a single unit and built of fine white limestone from the near-by Mukattam Hills." (The Scepter of Egypt, Vol. 1, p. 60.) In fact, Egyptologists tend to term everything they find as a royal "tomb", which is what they have called this complex.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">But it in fact exhibits every feature indicative of being a center of great activity, a feature which again fits with the story of Joseph. When Joseph's brothers came to get grain, they came face to face with Joseph who was overseeing the distribution. Where did they go to get the grain? They went to wherever the grain was stored, and this was where Joseph was. And the storage of such a massive amount of grain would have required a large storage area, such as the extremely large pits found in this complex. It is also reasonable to expect to find the storage pits within an enclosure such as this complex, with an area for the payment of the grain. This was a "business" and would have required a center of administration. A great deal has been written about this complex, and most mention the uniqueness of it- something they cannot explain. In fact, when you ask the Egyptians what the huge pits were for, they admit that they just don't know.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Some ancient historians have written of the fact that the pyramids were once believed to be "Joseph's storage bins" for the grain, and perhaps this story has its roots in the fact Joseph designed the first pyramid in the same complex in which the grain was stored. But regardless of what the "experts" want to believe about the Step Pyramid complex, the circumstantial evidence fits the story of Joseph perfectly. And, it is one of the best preserved site in Egypt- certainly of the very old structures- and this is consistent with God's preservation of important evidences.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">The Search for Imhotep's Tomb We know from the Bible that Joseph died in Egypt and was embalmed and placed in a coffin. GEN 50:26 So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt. But, when the children of Israel left during the Exodus, his bones were taken with them: EXO 13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you. This leads us to think that Joseph would have had a royal tomb in Egypt, but that it was possibly taken over and used by someone else, we just don't really know. But one of the big mysteries for Egyptologists has been the tomb of Imhotep- they simply can't find it although they know it should be somewhere in Sakkara. So important is Imhotep to Egyptology, that in the Guidebook to Sakkara by Jill Kamil, "The Tomb of Imhotep" is listed as a subject heading, only to explain that it has not been found.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">In our discussion of "Imhotep, the Physician", we mentioned that ancient Greek texts speak of a place near Memphis where people came to worship "Imhotep" and be healed. When excavators continued to search for Imhotep's tomb very near the Step Pyramid, they found an incredible labyrinth of underground tunnels, full of mummified ibis (birds) and bulls (in separate galleries). Inscriptions and coins found here show that people came here to be healed! They had found this "sanctuary to Imhotep" written of by the Greeks.</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">After the deification of Imhotep as "god of medicine", he was given the title, "Chief One of the Ibis"- and this was the connection of this labyrinth with Imhotep. These hundreds of thousands of ibis were mummified and brought here as tribute to Imhotep, filling these tunnels. It was later discovered that these galleries connected to a pit that extends down to a funerary chamber which contains an empty coffin. They also discovered that this chamber belonged to a very large mastaba tomb which contained a second chamber full of broken stone vessels, and in the tomb's storerooms were jars whose clay-stoppers had the seal impression of Djoser!</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><font size="3"><font color="#333333"><font face="Times New Roman">Here is absolute proof that this was the tomb of a very important person of Djoser's reign. No inscriptions were found on the walls and the sarcophagus was empty. But even more importantly, this mastaba is oriented to the north instead of the east, as the other pyramids and mastabas are. This was an important tomb of someone from Djoser's time- but the sarcophagus was empty. There was even found an inscription by an anonymous Greek who came here, telling how he was cured- and it was through a dream!</font></font></font></p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> </div> Wed, 24 Aug 2011 19:48:46 +0000 admin 83 at https://free-minds.org Saleh's Camel https://free-minds.org/salehs-camel <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Saleh&#039;s Camel</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-23T11:57:04+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 08/23/2011 - 19:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/camel.jpg?itok=K70N32Rf" width="203" height="152" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify">Amongst the many narrations of people and places that God has revealed in the Quran, one story deals with the people of `Thamud` who inherited power after the people of Aad and to whom the messenger Saleh was sent from amongst them to warn them of their misdeeds and to ask they change their ways...</p> <blockquote> <p>"And to Thamud was sent their brother Saleh. He said: `My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. He established you in the land and gave you control over it, so seek His forgiveness, then repent to Him. My Lord is Near, Responsive.` They said: `O Saleh, you were well liked amongst us before this. Do you deter us from serving what our fathers served? We are in serious doubt as to what you are inviting us.`" (11:61-62)</p> </blockquote> <!--break--> <p>The people of Thamud doubted that Saleh was indeed a messenger from God and asked him to bring forth a sign:</p> <blockquote> <p>"You are but a human being like us. So bring a sign if you are of the truthful ones." (26:154)</p> </blockquote> <p>As a granting of their request, God sent to Saleh a giant camel which was a sign unto itself and which required an entire day to drink water...However, the camel was not to be harmed, else a terrible retribution would follow:</p> <p><img src="/sites/default/files/images/saleh/001.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 150px" /></p> <blockquote> <p>"And my people, this is God’s camel, in her you have a sign. So leave her to eat from God’s land freely, and do not harm her, or else a close retribution will take you." (11:64)</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>"He said: `This is a female camel which will have to drink and you will drink on a different day. And do not afflict her with harm, else the retribution of a great day will seize you.`" (26:155-156)</p> </blockquote> <p>Unfortunately, as is common when dealing with those who reject the guidance of the Almighty, the camel was slaughtered:</p> <blockquote> <p>"But they slaughtered her. So he said: `You will only have three days of enjoyment in your homes. This is a promise that will not be denied.`" (11:65)</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>"They thus killed the camel and defied their Lord’s command, and they said: `O Saleh, bring us what you promised us if you are of the messengers!`" (7:77)</p> </blockquote> <p>And thus, the people of Thamud were destroyed for their crime of disobeying the Lord God:</p> <p>"The Earthquake took them, so they became lifeless in their homes. Thus he turned away from them, and said: `My people, I had delivered to you the message of my Lord and advised you; but you do not like the advisers.`" (7:78-79)</p> <blockquote> <p>"So, when Our command came, We saved Saleh and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us against the disgrace of that day. Your Lord is the Powerful, the Noble. And those who wronged were taken by the scream, thus they lay motionless in their homes. It is as if they never lived there. For Thamud rejected their Lord. There is no more Thamud." (11:66-68)</p> </blockquote> <p><strong>Saleh`s Camel Discovered?</strong></p> <p>In an interesting recent archeological find (<a href="http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=scienceNews&amp;storyID=2006-10-06T193544Z_01_L06915082_RTRUKOC_0_US-SYRIA-CAMEL.xml&amp;WTmodLoc=Home-C5-scienceNews-3&amp;rpc=92">Reuters Oct 2006</a>), a Swiss-Syrian team, after three years of excavation, have unearthed the remains of a giant camel near the area of El Kowm in northeast Syria. The camel is not of a species ever known to have existed and has presented the research team with an `anomaly` as to where this camel came from and why it has never been found since. </p> <p><img src="/sites/default/files/images/saleh/002.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 140px" /></p> <p><em>Leg bone from a giant camel (l) compared with a modern one</em></p> <p>The camel is at least double the size of any camel species known until today...</p> <p>What is also worth noting in this archeological find is that the research group have concluded that the camel did not die naturally but was most probably killed by humans:</p> <p><em>"A group of humans apparently killed the camel while it was drinking from a spring, said Tensorer, adding that 100,000-year-old human remains were discovered nearby at the once water-rich site in the desert steppe."</em></p> <p>This finding is a replica of what the Almighty tells us happened with the camel of Saleh. The camel was to be allowed to drink for a whole day by itself (26:155) and was subsequently murdered in defiance of what Saleh had told them (11:65).</p> <p>What is also of interest is that the area where the camel remains were found is described as being a `lush savanna` nearly 100,000 years ago and that caves surrounding the savanna have yielded human artifacts and remains from that same period 100,000 years ago (see <a href="http://muse.or.jp">research into Al Doura cave</a>).</p> <p><a href="http://www.free-minds.org/articles/history/syria.jpg"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/saleh/003.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 291px" /></a></p> <p>The Quran tells us that the people of Thamud lived in an savanna of gardens and springs (26:147-148) and that they used to carve the caves in the mountains as their homes (26:149).</p> <p>While this may or may not be the very same camel that Saleh brought as a sign to his people, it is a confirmation that the words of the Quran are true and that such a creature did indeed exist in the realms of reality.</p> <blockquote> <p>"Say: `Roam the Earth and see how was the end of the criminals.` And do not be saddened for them, and do not be distraught for what they plot." (27:69-70)</p> </blockquote> <div align="center"> <hr align="center" noshade="noshade" size="2" width="50%" /></div> <p>Ref.</p> <p>Quran verses: 11:61-68, 7:73-79, 26:141-155</p> <p><a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6035113.stm">http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6035113.stm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200610/s1757860.htm">http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200610/s1757860.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.muse.or.jp/syria/eng/map_syria.html">http://www.muse.or.jp/syria/eng/map_syria.html</a></p> <p> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter">Written for <a href="www.free-minds.org">www.free-minds.org</a></p> </div> Tue, 23 Aug 2011 11:57:04 +0000 admin 56 at https://free-minds.org Noah and the Great Flood https://free-minds.org/noah-and-great-flood <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Noah and the Great Flood</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-21T18:18:05+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 08/22/2011 - 02:18</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/noah.jpg?itok=HqS3GfgE" width="300" height="150" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-justify"><em>Disclaimer: This work is built on the understanding that the flood was a `global` event and as such all the points made are in relation to such an understanding. While the reader may disagree with the findings, the article is being presented for its thought provoking content</em>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The story of Noah and the Great Flood is a tale that has been repeated and retold by various cultures and various religious denomination spanning the length and breadth of the planet Earth. At its core is the story of how God was so angered with humankind that He instructed Noah to build a great ship with which to carry a pair of each animal and then He sent a flood to wipe clean the Earth and begin anew...</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This article will attempt to construct the details of this event from the Quran while linking such events with their respective counterparts in archeology and science.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><!--break--></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Noah Sent to Warn.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After God had created Adam and settled him and his mate on the plains of the Earth, generations of people sprang forth and multiplied until these generations lost the path of the One God and lived lives filled with evil. </p> <p class="text-align-justify">It was then that God decided to send a warner to the people through the prophet Noah...The details of what transpired have been recorded as follows:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"We have sent Noah to his people: `Warn your people before a painful retribution comes to them.` He said: `My people, I am to you a clear warner. That you shall serve God and be aware of Him and obey. He shall forgive your sins and delay you to a predetermined time. When God’s time comes, then it cannot be delayed, if you know.`" (71:1-4)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Noah warned and warned...But alas, you cannot make the deaf hear nor the blind see:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"He said: `My Lord, I have called on my people night and day. But my calling only drove them away! And every time I called on them so that You may forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears and they covered their heads with their outer garments and they insisted, and they became greatly arrogant. Then I called to them openly. Then I announced to them, and I spoke to them in secret. And I said: Seek forgiveness from your Lord, for He was forgiving. He sends the clouds upon you constantly. And He provides you with money and children, and He makes for you gardens, and He makes for you rivers. Why do you not seek God humbly. While He created you in stages? Did you not see how God created seven skies in layers? And He made the moon to illuminate in them, and He made the sun to be a lit flame? And God made you grow from the Earth like plants. Then He returns you to it, and He brings you out totally? And God made the land for you as a plain. So that you may seek in it ways and paths?`" (71:5-20)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">And, as is an obvious human reaction to the warnings of the messengers, Noah was ridiculed and rejected:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"Noah said: `My Lord, they have disobeyed me and have followed whose money and children only increased him in loss.` And they plotted a great plotting. And they said: `Do not abandon your gods. Do not abandon Destroyer, nor Night Group, nor Helper and Deterrer and Eagle.` And they have misguided many, but We only increase the wicked in misguidance." (71:21-24)</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Noah Ordered to Prepare the Ark for Himself, Believers, and Animals.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While he was still preaching to his people (and most were rejecting his preaching), Noah was instructed by the Almighty to construct an ark with which he was to carry his family, the believers, and a pair of every animal to be saved from the destruction when it came.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/noah/001.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 200px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">"So We inspired him: `Construct the Ship under Our eyes and Our inspiration. Then, when Our command comes and the volcano erupts, then you shall take on the Ship two from every pair, and your family; except for those of them upon whom the word has come. And do not address Me regarding those who have done wrong, for they will be drowned.`" (23:27)</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>The Flood was Sent.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">As a result of the rejection and transgression of the people, God caused a cataclysmic event that made the Earth bring forth its water and drowned all the rejecters:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"They denied him (Noah), so We saved him and those with him in the Ship, and We made them to succeed each other, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations. So see how was the punishment of those who were warned!" (10:73)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And the people of Noah, when they denied the messengers We drowned them, and We made them a lesson for mankind. And We have prepared for the wicked a painful retribution." (25:37)</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong><u>Issues / Findings</u></strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While the story of the flood is quite straightforward, there are many issues/questions that present themselves and require a focused analysis.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>The Flood Was Global.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While many have speculated that the flood was limited to a specific island or geographic region (mainly for logistic difficulty), the narration of the Quran tells us that the flood was indeed a global event for two main reasons:</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>1. Noah Prayed for the Complete Annihilation of all Mankind on Earth (not a specific people or region). </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And Noah said: `<u>My Lord, do not leave on the Earth any of the rejecters at all</u>. If you are to leave them, then they will misguide Your servants and they will only give birth to a wicked rejecter.`" (71:26-27)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Noah prayed for the Lord to `wipe clean the entire Earth` (not a village or geographic region)...And his prayer was indeed accepted and answered:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And Noah when he called out before that, thus <u>We responded to him</u>, and We saved him and his family from the great distress. And We granted him victory against the people that denied Our revelations. They were a people of evil, so We drowned them all." (21:76-77)</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>2. God Ordered Noah to Carry a Pair of Every Animal.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">"So We inspired him: `Construct the Ship under Our eyes and Our inspiration. Then, when Our command comes and the volcano erupts, then you shall take on the Ship two from every pair, and your family; except for those of them upon whom the word has come. And do not address Me regarding those who have done wrong, for they will be drowned.`" (23:27)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">What puts an end to any debate on the flood being local or global is the command Noah was given to carry each pair of animals with him – a command never given to any other prophet (e.g. Lot, Aad, Thamud, etc.) even though their towns/villages were completely annihilated by the Almighty.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Evidence of the Flood?</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">What creates the doubt in modern scientific minds of a global flood is the so called “lack of evidence” – people are quick to point out that many species of trees can be traced back to tens of thousands of years, which proves that the flood was a myth or at least a “local” event.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The question that needs to be asked is not "where" is the evidence but "<strong>when"</strong> is the evidence`?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">If we are looking to the evidence of a few thousand years, then we may indeed agree that there is no solid evidence of a global catastrophe, however, if we extend our horizon beyond that to tens and even hundreds of thousands of years, then we find that the entire story takes on a new form.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Scientific discoveries have now concluded that our species have been around for at least 6 million years (see “Millennium Man” skeleton discovery in Kenya) – and that “Modern Man”  has been around for at least 100,000 years (evidenced by tools, burial rituals, and artifacts – see Qafzeh IX cave findings).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">More so, the evidence of a cataclysmic disaster which wiped out nearly all life on Earth is found in the substance that we all use on a daily basis and take for granted – <strong>oil</strong>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Oil is the result of a sudden and massive pile-up of plant and animal bodies, all deposited on top of each other in hollow deposits as if by the effect of massive waves – this mass of matter, covered by tons of mud and sediment, is what has converted into the unique black gold we know as “oil”.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/oil.gif" style="width: 250px; height: 241px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While science estimates that this process of converting dead tissue to oil can take tens of millions of years, it must be noted that this assumption is based on the process occurring “naturally” and does not take into effect the possibility a “sudden death” where millions of tons of animals and plants are swept away at once and buried under tons of sediment and debris – as would be the case from a global flood. If a massive global flood is the catalyst, then the notion of “millions” of years can be compacted into “thousands” of years.  </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Different Human Races.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Another obvious fact that has been overlooked by most is the different races within humanity. The Africans, the Indians, the Chinese, the Europeans, etc.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/noah/005.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 185px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">While we are all beautiful in our differences, the reason we are different is directly related to the geography of the regions we live in. The Africans developed dark skin, curly dark hair, and wide noses to deal with the sun and the heat that they are exposed to. The Europeans developed light skin, blond hair, and thin noses to deal with the cold and lack of sunshine in their region.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The above genetic changes do not occur over hundreds or even tens of thousands of years, but they occur over perhaps hundreds of thousands of years of slight genetic evolution so that the offspring is always stronger and more adaptable to the climate and regions he or she is living in.   </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>What Caused the Great Flood?</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The reasons behind a sudden global flood and mass extinction of most life on Earth, and the possible conversion of these life masses into oil, is open to speculation, however, the Qur’an as usual lends us assistance in understanding the events of our past:</p> <p class="rteindent1 text-align-justify">"So, when Our command came and the volcano erupted. We said: `Carry in it two from every pair, and your family; except those against whom the word has been issued; and whoever believed.` But those who believed with him were few." (11:40)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Quran tells us that the great flood was caused primarily by lava gushing forth from a volcano. It is very likely that this volcano was underwater (the Quran uses the words `faar altanoor` which is literally: `the oven boiled`) causing the sea water to turn to steam and this producing tidal waves as well as torrential rains.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/noah/014.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 225px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Volcano erupts underwater near Solomon Islands, boils ocean (<a href="http://eobglossary.gsfc.nasa.gov/Study/monvoc/">2002)</a></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The cause of an underwater volcano is unknown, but it is not unfathomable to speculate that a massive asteroid, crashing into the sea, would penetrate the thin crust beneath the ocean releasing massive amounts of lava that would immediately react with the water – boiling it into steam, and causing mountain high waves.<br />  </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/noah/013.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 188px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>The Remains of the Ark.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">"We carried him on a craft made of slabs and mortar. It ran under Our watchful eyes; a reward for one who was rejected. And <u>We have left it as a sign</u>. Do any of you wish to learn?" (54:13-15)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Quran tells us that the ark has been left as a sign from the Almighty. This now becomes an undisputed fact that the ark, or parts thereof (no matter how old) remain intact in fulfillment of the promise of the Almighty.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Some important observations which will help identify the ark can be seen as follows:</p> <ul><li class="text-align-justify">The ark being sought is at least tens of thousands of years old;</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The ark is most likely made of stone slabs (Alwah in Arabic - Quran 7:14) which would ensure its survivability (or part thereof) until today;</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The ark was built on land and came to rest on land, which most likely means that its hull is flat in structure to give it stability in rising and landing;</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The ark came to rest on low flat land - a plateau (Istawat in Arabic - Quran 11:44) which is logical as it would need to unload hundreds of thousands of animals in safety;</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The size of the ark would need to exceed that of any aircraft carrier;</li> <li class="text-align-justify">The ark was most likely powered by some energy or ionization process (Mashhoon in Arabic - Quran 26:119).</li> </ul><p class="text-align-justify">One further clue we can gain from the Quran regarding the location of this great sign is a name/description of such plateau being given as "Judi" (the exact meaning is not clear at this stage).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"And it was said: 'O land, swallow your water, and O sky, cease.' And the water was diminished, and the matter concluded. And it came to rest (istawat) on the <u>Judi</u>, and it was said: 'Away with the wicked people.'” (11:44)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Only time will tell.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-center">Written for <a href="www.free-minds.org">www.free-minds.org</a></p> </div> Sun, 21 Aug 2011 18:18:05 +0000 admin 53 at https://free-minds.org Where Was Mohammed? https://free-minds.org/where-was-mohammed <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Where Was Mohammed?</span> <div class="field field--name-taxonomy-vocabulary-1 field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><a href="/category/history-archeology" hreflang="en">History / Archeology</a></div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2011-08-21T07:39:02+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 08/21/2011 - 15:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-article-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/image_style_standard_for_article/public/prophet_mohammed_thumbnail.jpg?itok=fddNE4GQ" width="300" height="291" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-image-style-standard-for-article" /> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">[DISCLAIMER: THIS ARTICLE IS CONTROVERSIAL IN ITS FINDINGS AND HAS BEEN POSTED FOR ITS THOUGHT-PROVOKING CONTENT]</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Preface:</strong> This article has been written with the intent of looking into humankind's history through the legacy of the Patriarch Abraham and some of the messengers that followed. The search for the actual <strong>Mohammed</strong> will take us to several locations in the Middle East, ending with conclusions that are quite different from today’s perceived history.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Over 1,400 years ago a new 'Scripture' was introduced to the World which re-confirmed man's covenant with God and re-introduced the laws of God that were similarly revealed to Abraham, Moses and Jesus.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">This Scripture was known as the ‘Quran,’ and its recipient (an Arab speaker) was to spread the word to all regions - starting with his own.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And this is a Scripture which We have sent down, blessed, authenticating what is present with him, and that you may warn the capital of the towns and those around it. And those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are dedicated to their contact-method.” (Qur'an 6:92)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">This new Prophet was <strong>Mohammed</strong> (see Qur'an 48:29) , and in this article we will attempt to separate 'Myth' from 'Reality' and piece together the correct narration of where he lived, and where he preached, from the Scripture itself...</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c6283667-6650-4aa8-b7b3-bec0ac40b0bf" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/prophet%27s%20tomb.jpg" style="width:300px;height:300px;" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify">Picture of the Prophet Mohammed's Tomb located in Medina - Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>--------------------</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part I - History of Messengers.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The revelations in the Scripture serve to provide us with much information about communities of the past and about their lives without which we would be left fumbling for information.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“We relate to you the best stories through what We have inspired to you in this Quran; and before it you were of those who were unaware.” (Qur'an 12:3)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>1. Noah.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The first history we are given in the Quran after our father Adam is the prophet Noah with the incident of the Great Flood. This was the time when all civilization on Earth was simply 'wiped-out' and man-kind had to start again.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“They denied him (Noah), so We saved him and those with him in the Ship, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations; they were a blind people.” (Qur'an 7:64)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Thus, the slate was wiped clean.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“So We saved him (Naoh) and the people on the ship, and We made it (the Ark) a sign for the worlds.” (Qur'an 29:15)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Although there is debate as to whether the flood was local or global, the implications of a global flood would place the history of Noah many millions of years back in Earth`s history (see link on <a href="http://www.free-minds.org/noah">Noah and the Great Flood</a>).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>2. 'Aad - People of Hud.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After Noah's community, the next nation that we hear about from the Scripture being established is that of ‘Aad (Hud is there messenger).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Hud tells his people:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from amongst you to warn you? And recall that he made you successors after the people of Noah, and He increased you in status. So recall God’s grace, that you may succeed.”  (Qur'an 7:69)</span></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“As for ‘Aad, they turned arrogant on Earth, without any right, and they said: “Who is mightier than us in strength?” Did they not see that God, who created them, was mightier than they in strength? And they were denying Our revelations.” (Qur'an 41:15)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">This indicates to us that although other people may have been roaming the Earth, ’Aad was a power unto its own which earned them the status of a nation and earned them the right to be sent a messenger (only nations large enough to have capitals are sent messengers 28:60).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Their Punishment:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Consequently, We sent upon them violent wind, for a few miserable day, that We may let them taste the humiliating retribution in this life, and the retribution of the Hereafter is more humiliating; they can never win.” (Qur'an 41:16)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>3. 'Thamud' - People of Saleh.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The next in the line of Nations are the people of 'Thamud'.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And recall that He made you (Thamud) successors after ‘Aad, and He established you in the land so that you make palaces on its plains, and you carve homes in the mountains. So recall God’s grace, and do not roam the Earth as corrupters.” (Qur'an 7:74)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">In the above verse, it is made clear to us that Thamud were taking their homes in the mountains and the flat of the Valley.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Their Punishment:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And ‘Aad and Thamud (were annihilated). Much was made apparent to you from their dwellings. The devil had adorned their works in their eyes, thus he diverted them from the path, even though they could see.” (Qur'an 29:38)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Recent evidence suggests that Thamud were located in the area of north west Syria where the remains of a giant camel have been found in accordance with the sign that the messenger Saleh brought to his people (see link on <a href="http://www.free-minds.org/saleh">Saleh and Thamud</a>).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>4. Abraham.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now that we have seen the development of nations after Noah, we will move on to the story of Abraham in which many developments take place.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Abraham leaves the town he lived in due to his people idolatry;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And he (Abraham) said: “You have taken idols besides God in order to preserve some friendship among you in this worldly life. But then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will disown one another, and curse one another. Your destiny is Hell, and you will have no victors.” (Qur'an 29:25)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Abraham is shown the location of the 'Shrine/Sanctum';</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And We have appointed to Abraham the location of the Sanctum: “Do not set up anyone with Me, and purify My Sanctuary for those who will partake, and those who will enforce, and those who kneel and prostrate.” (Qur'an 22:26)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Sanctum is in a ‘blessed land’ also called 'Bakka';</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Abraham with Ismail raise the foundations of the Sanctuary;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And as Abraham raised the foundations for the Sanctum with Ishmael: “Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:127)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Sanctuary is declared for Pilgrimage;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the Sanctum, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>One of Abraham's progeny `Zuriya` resides in an area near the  Sanctuary:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Our Lord, I have resided part of my progeny (Zuriya) in an uncultivated valley near your restricted Sanctum. My Lord, so that they may uphold the Salat. So let the hearts of the people incline towards them and give provisions to them of the fruits that they may give thanks.” (Qur'an 14:37)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">There are two pieces of information from the events with Abraham that will become key to topic at hand:</p> <ol><li class="text-align-justify">The Sanctum is located in a place called "Bakka";</li> <li class="text-align-justify">That Abraham helped one of his progeny (no name mentioned) reside in a valley near the vicinity of the Sanctum.</li> </ol><p class="text-align-justify"><strong>5. Lot.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Before moving on to <strong>Mohammed</strong>, it is important to bring one more character into the history, that of the messenger Lot.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Lot emigrates with Abraham;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Thus, Lot believed with him and said: “I am emigrating to my Lord. He is the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an  29:26)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Lot is from Abraham's progeny;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">"And such was Our argument that We gave Abraham over his people; We raise the degree of whom We please. Your Lord is Wise, Knowledgeable. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, both of whom We guided; and Noah We guided from before; and from his <strong>progeny</strong> `Zuriya` is David, and Solomon, and Job, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron. It is such that We reward the good doers. And Zachariah and John, and Jesus, and Elias; all were from the upright. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and<strong> Lot</strong>; and each We have preferred over the worlds." (Qur'an 6:83-86)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">This is the part that most Muslim scholars totally missed, although in Christian and Jewish scriptures there is recognition of a blood relation between Abraham and Lot (Lot is recognized as Abraham's nephew).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Lot settles around a  community which turns wicked:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And Lot, when he said to his people: ‘You commit a lewdness that no others in the world have done before! You sexually approach men, and you commit highway robbery, And you bring all vice to your society.’ But the only response from his people was to Say: “Bring us God's retribution, if you are being truthful!” (Qur'an 29:28-30)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><em>Ø</em> <em>The town of Lot  is near/on an established path:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And it (town of Lot) was on an established path. In that is a sign for the believers.” (Qur'an 15:76-77)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The people of Lot rebel and are destroyed:</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“He said: “Here are my daughters if it is your intention.” By your life, they are in their drunkenness, blundering. So the scream took them at sunrise. Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an 15:71-74)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“They said: “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?” (Qur'an 11:81)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Lot's town is left partially standing as a 'Sign':</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And We left remains of it as a clear sign for a people who understand.” (Qur'an 29:35)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And We have left in it a sign for those who fear the painful retribution.” (Qur'an 51:37)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Where Was Lot’s Town?</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">With regards to the location of the town of Lot (Sodom &amp; Gomorrah), it is generally viewed that the area around the ‘Dead Sea’ in Jordan/Palestine is where the historic events took place (the Dead Sea until today retains the name of `Sea of Lot`).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Some of the clues we are given about the location of Lot include:</p> <ol><li class="text-align-justify">The town of Lot was on an established path (15:76-77);</li> <li class="text-align-justify">Signs are left from the town for all to see (51:37, 29:35);</li> </ol><p class="text-align-justify">The key information from the points above that will help is the one about the ‘established path’. If we look at the current evidence of ancient highways/paths that used to intersect the region, then we find that there is indeed the ‘King’s Highway’ that dates back to before the time of Moses and is still in existence today.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">“The King’s Highway crossed half the Fertile Crescent, from Egypt to Syria, spreading goods and culture throughout the Middle East. It has been a favored trail since before history was recorded and today is paved for the most part.”</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/001.jpg" style="height:817px; width:300px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-justify">Staying in the vicinity of the Dead Sea, and looking at the path of the King`s Highway, we find there are a number of ancient towns that are potential candidates for being the location of Lot (Petra, Zoara, Karak and Madaba).</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Petra.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Out of the choice of ancient towns near the Dead Sea, it appears that Petra is the better choice based on its abundance of surviving archeological evidence in the form of the homes of the people who last lived there:</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/002.jpg" style="height:449px; width:300px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-justify">Petra also happens to be situated in a 'Valley' and, although it is in an area that lacks abundant water sources, its inhabitants constructed an  advanced hydraulic water system to bring water to the city.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Petra has only recently been attracting archeological excavations; however, excavations have only been done on less than 2% of the ancient city. According to some archeological research, Petra dates back to 3,500 BC:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"In Abraham’s time, Petra was known as <a href="http://www.amazingdiscoveries.org/bible_petra.htm">Salah</a>. It is located in the mountains of Seir, the land of the Edomites. Petra is the Greek name for Sela, or Selah, a city of ancient Edom. The Hebrew word sela means "lofty, craggy rock, fortress, stronghold, cliff."</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The site of Petra seems to indicate the presence of multiple civilizations, the last of which were the Nabateans (Arabs) and the Romans (Byzantines) upto the 6<sup>th</sup> century A.D. when it was struck by a devastating earthquake in 551 A.D. and the city fell out of <a href="http://nabataea.net/lhistory.html">disuse</a>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Thus, in conclusion to this part of the research, it can be said with some confidence that the ancient city of Petra is indeed the location where the people of Lot resided with Lot being from the progeny of Abraham.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>--------------------</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part II - Mohammed</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now that we have looked at the sequences and clues with regards to the previous messengers, it is time to move on to the seal of the prophets, <strong>Mohammed</strong>:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And if Our revelations are recited to them, they Say: “We have listened, and if we wish, we could have said the same thing. This is nothing but tales of the ancients!” And they said: “Our god, if this is the truth (this Quran) from You, then send down upon us a rain of stones from the sky or bring on us a painful retribution.” But God was not to punish them while you (<strong>Mohammed</strong>) are with them, nor will God punish them while they continue to seek forgiveness. And why should God not punish them when they are turning others away from the Restricted Temple, and they were never its protectors! Its protectors are the righteous; but most of them do not know. And their Salat at the <strong>Sanctuary</strong> was nothing but noise and aversion. Taste the retribution for what you have rejected.” (Qur'an 8:31-35)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Here we have a number of conclusive points which need to be looked at:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø Revelations are newly being revealed through <strong>Mohammed</strong> (8:31);</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø The Restricted Temple/Sanctum is at this location/place (8:34-35);</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <strong>Mohammed</strong> is living amongst these people (8:33);</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Taking all the previous information into account, this would mean that <strong>Mohammed</strong> began his mission in Baca where Abraham originally with Ismail established God’s Restricted Temple/Sanctuary.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now, according to the Sunnis and Shia, we are told that this location is Mecca (Arabia) where the great Kabaa (cube) is located and where millions of pilgrims have made their way for centuries to visit this shrine while performing the rituals/rites of pilgrimage.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, we must pause here for a moment and ask some vital questions:</p> <ol><li class="text-align-justify">Since the pilgrimage was first called to by Abraham and was known by the prophets who came after him (e.g. Moses making an oath – measured by the years of pilgrimage), then why are the so-called followers of Moses and Jesus (Jews &amp; Nazarenes) unaware of the significance of Mecca or the need to visit the Temple there?</li> <li class="text-align-justify">If Mecca was the place where Abraham first raised the Shrine, then why do the Sunnis and Shia claim in their history that the prophet and his followers were facing Jerusalem in their daily Salat before switching to Mecca a few years later?</li> <li class="text-align-justify">If the Sunnis and Shia are fabricating the history of the Jerusalem qibla (focal point), then why is there physical evidence found in the form of a mosque with two qiblas located in Medina and dating back to the prophet’s time?</li> <li class="text-align-justify">What benefit do the Sunnis and Shia have in promoting (to this day) that Jerusalem was the 1<sup>st</sup> qibla?</li> </ol><p class="text-align-justify">The reason for the above questions and the obvious doubt that is being placed on Mecca’s authenticity is not due to any secret conspiracy or hidden agenda, but is due to the existence of evidence in the Scripture which has been totally ignored by the masses.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Bakk`a is Jerusalem, not Mecca;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">"The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in <strong>Bakk’a</strong>, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds." (Qur'an 3:96)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">The most obvious and important piece of information that is often overlooked is that God calls the place where His first Sanctuary is located is called "Bakk`a". Now, while Bakka and Mecca may rhyme, they are obviously not the same place as Bakka is still until today known as a name from Jerusalem, not Mecca.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"Blessed are they that dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; in whose heart are the ways of them. Who passing through <u>the valley of Baca</u> make it a well; the rain also fills the pools. They go from strength to strength, every one of them <u>in Zion</u> appears before God. O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer: give ear, O God of Jacob. Selah. [Psalm 84:4-8]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The name `Baca` has been retained in ancient scriptures and is the given as the name of the area which is reached as pilgrims exited the valley of Rephaim from the south west that led to mount Zion in the heart of Jerusalem (Samuel 5:22-23).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In-fact, the name Baka is still retained for that very same area that approaches the heart of Jerusalem from the south west:</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><a href="/sites/default/files/images/moh/003.jpg"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/003.jpg" style="height:401px; width:350px" /></a></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>The area of the south west in a map of Jerusalem is still named "Baka" (click map to enlarge)</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">In realization of this significant fact, some defenders of Mecca have argued (without evidence) that Baca was the ancient name for Mecca - Arabia.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Now, this argument would be worth examining had it not been for the Quran discrediting such a claim by mentioning Mecca by name in a different verse as being a town which was hostile to the prophet and which stood in the way of the pilgrims as they attempted to reach the Restricted Temple (i.e. the Temple is not in Mecca, but rather beyond it, making it clear that Mecca and Baca have never been one in the same):</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">"And He is the One who withheld their hands against you, and your hands against them in the interior of <u>Mecca</u>, after He had made you victorious over them. God is Seer of what you do. <u>They are the ones who rejected and barred you from the Restricted Temple, and barred your donations from reaching their destination</u>. And there had been believing men and women whom you did not know, and you may have hurt them, and on whose account you would have committed a sin unknowingly. God will admit into His mercy whomever He wills. Had they become separated, We would then have punished those of them who rejected with a painful retribution." (Qur'an 48:24-25)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>More clues for Jerusalem;</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And call out to mankind with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure. So that they may witness benefits for themselves and recall God’s name in the appointed days over what He has provided for them of the animal livestock. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor.” (Qur'an 22:27-28)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Looking at the verse above which speaks of pilgrimage, it is noted that the location of the pilgrimage is clearly elevated hence people are coming to it ‘from every deep enclosure’. As already pointed out, Jerusalem is located well above sea level (averaging 2,700 ft), making it an ideal description for people which would be approaching it from the low lands.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Location of the Temple (Dome of the Rock?);</em></p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/004.jpg" style="height:235px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Aerial view of the Dome of the Rock that is situated on the Temple Mount area</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">An architectural masterpiece, the Dome was built in 687 A.D. by AbdulMalik Bin Marwan in what is still a puzzle to historians as the Dome was not constructed like any mosque, but more like a ‘temple/shrine’:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">What is so unique is that the Dome of the Rock was never built as a mosque and was never used for this purpose. The character of the building is not that of a typical mosque. No similar building can be found anywhere else in the Islamic world. It was not built facing Mecca but as an octagonal form corresponding to the points of the compass. The main entrance is from the south, not the south-east (the direction of Mecca) as in other mosques. The builders did not build a Michrab (showing the direction of Mecca) in the southern part of the building. Even today, when the Arabs pray on the Temple Mount they do not do it in this building. Only in 1947 did the Mufti Hajamim el Husseini, who made a covenant with Hitler agreeing to kill all the Jews in the land of Israel, decide to build a Michrab. He explained that the Jews were going to rebuild the Temple on the same location of the Dome of the Rock, the site of the First and Second Temples; in this way he believed he would be able to prevent it. However, this act never made the Dome into a mosque and the Moslems continued to pray in the El Aqsa mosque on the southern part of the Temple Mount. (<a href="http://www.templemountfaithful.org/Newsletters/2001/5761-11.htm">source</a>)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Some historians (such as Al-Yaqubi) have attributed this strange structure to the political situation at the time and the desire of Abdel Malik to retain the power base of Islam in having the pilgrimage located at Jerusalem rather than Mecca:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">`Abd al-Malik prevented the people of Sham from the hajj and this is because Ibn al-Zubayr was taking the pledge of allegience from the pilgrims. When `Abd al-Malik had found out about this, he prevented them from setting out to Makkah. But the people protested and said: "Do you prevent us from doing the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah while it is a duty from Allah upon us ?" He said: "Here is Ibn Shihabuddin al-Zuhri narrating to you that the Messenger of Allah said: "The caravans should not be set out except for three mosques, the Sacred Mosque, my present Mosque and the Mosque of Jerusalem" [which] stands for the Sacred Mosque for you. And here is the Rock on [which] it is narrated that the Prophet set his foot before ascending to the heavens, it stands for the Ka`bah. Then he built a Dome on the Rock, suspended silk curtains on it and appointed servants for it. And told the people to revolve around it like they revolve around the Ka`bah and so it was during the rule of Bani Umayyah.[ Ahmad b. Abu Ya`qub Ibn Wadih al-Ya`qubi (Ed. M. T. Houtsma), Tarikh, 1883, Volume II, Leiden, p. 311.1]</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø The Kaaba – Jerusalem;</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“God has made the Kaaba to be the Restricted Sanctuary, to enforce for the people, and for the restricted month, and for the donations, and for regulation; that is so you know that God knows what is in heavens and what is in Earth, and that God is aware of all things.” (Qur'an 5:97)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">We are told that the word ‘Kaaba’ means a ‘cube shape’ and that the site in Mecca has been constructed in accordance with this design requirement.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/005.jpg" style="height:263px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>A photo of Mecca's Shrine (the Kaba) taken in 1950</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, the meaning of ‘cube’ associated to this word has no basis in the Scripture itself nor even to the Arabic language still in use today (the word for cube is mu’ka’ab, not kaaba or kaab).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The word ‘Kaab/Kaaba’ are associated in Arabic to any feature that is protruding, such as the bones to the side of the ankles as can be seen below:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“O you who believe, if you rise to attend the Salat, then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the<strong> ankles (Kaabain)</strong>; and if you have had intercourse, then you shall bathe. And if you are ill, or traveling, or you have excreted feces, or you have had sexual contact with the women, and you could not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and your hands with it. God does not want to make any hardship over you, but He wants to cleanse you and to complete His blessings upon you that you may be appreciative.” (Qur'an 5:6)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Thus, any construct, regardless of its shape can be called a ‘Kaaba’ as long as it stands out from the plain.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">What we need to ask to be more detailed is: ‘are there any special features that are protruding at the site of the temple of Mecca or Jerusalem that would give it the description of being a Kaaba’</p> <p class="text-align-justify">With regards to the temple of Mecca, we have no apparent evidence of any special structure, however, with regards to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, we have as the name indicates, a special feature that is the presence of a Rock Formation that protrudes from the earth as part of the original mount and upon which the Dome was built - making the Dome "Kaaba".</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/006.jpg" style="height:235px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>A photo of the Rock within the Dome</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">What is interesting to note regarding the stone is that it is attributed as the spot where Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son in fulfillment of the vision he had seen. This would technically make the stone the marker given the name by God of “Maqam Ibrahim” (place/location of Abraham) which we are told would be found <strong>within</strong> the Temple/Sanctum:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds. <strong>In it are clear signs: the place of Abraham (maqam Ibrahim)</strong>. And whoever enters it will be secure. And God is owed from mankind to make Pilgrimage to the Sanctuary, whoever can make a path to it. And whoever rejects, then God has no need of the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96-97)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Please note the apparent discrepancy for the site of Mecca where the alleged “Maqam Ibrahim” has been placed <strong>outside</strong> the alleged sanctum/temple:</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/007.jpg" style="height:282px; width:200px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Photo of “Maqam Ibrahim” – Mecca Arabia</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>---------------</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part III - Mohammed Emigrates.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">This is where the Sunnis and Shia begin to agree with the narration taken from the Scripture. After preaching the message of God to his own community of Baca; and after finding much resistance and oppression...<strong>Mohammed</strong> Emigrates from his home after all attempts to establish a 'God Alone Community' are met with failure and defeat.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And many a town was stronger than your own town, which drove you out. We destroyed them, and there was none who could help them.” (Qur'an 47:13)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Migration/Hijra: </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“O prophet, We have made lawful for you the wives to whom you have already given their dowry, and the one who is committed to you by oath, as granted to you by God, and the daughters of your father's brothers, and the daughters of your father's sisters, and the daughters of your mother's brothers, and the daughters of your mother's sisters, of whom they have <strong>emigrated</strong> <strong>with you</strong>. Also, the believing woman who had decreed herself to the prophet, the prophet may marry her if he wishes, as a privilege given only to you and not to the believers. We have already decreed their rights in regard to their spouses and those who are still dependant. This is to spare you any hardship. God is Forgiver, Merciful.” (Qur'an 33:50)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“God has pardoned the prophet and the <strong>emigrants</strong> and the supporters that followed him in the darkest hour, even though the hearts of some of them nearly deviated, but then He pardoned them. He is towards them Compassionate, Merciful.” (Qur'an 9:117)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">We can clearly read that <strong>Mohammed</strong> (and his followers/supporters &amp; family members) all emigrated from their town of Baca to at least one or possibly two locations ...</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Yathrib: </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">One of these places where <strong>Mohammed</strong> emigrated was known as 'Yathrib':'</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And a group of them said: “O people of Yathrib, you cannot make a stand; therefore, retreat.” And a small party of them sought permission from the prophet, saying: “Our homes are exposed,” while they were not exposed. They just wanted to flee.” (Qur'an 33:13)</span></p> </blockquote> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><a href="/sites/default/files/images/moh/008.png"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/008.png" style="border-image:none; border:2px solid currentColor; height:280px; width:400px" /></a></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Jurisdiction of Rome around the period 600 A.D</em>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Looking at the map of Rome's jurisdiction at the time, it would make perfect sense that <strong>Mohammed</strong> would migrate <strong>south</strong> away from Rome's influence towards a place where they had no jurisdiction. It is therefore plausible that one of the places where the prophet migrated was the town known today as `Medina` in the area of north west Arabia where certain artifacts related to the prophet and his era seem to have been found.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Beca/Jerusalem is still Mohammed's Focal Point.</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The first sanctuary established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Although <strong>Mohammed</strong> has been evicted, he is still upholding the focal point of the Temple in Jerusalem…This would explain why the Sunnis and Shia record until today that the prophet did indeed face Jerusalem for the first part of his stay in Medina (as evidenced by the mosque with two qiblas) and why they still call Jerusalem the ‘1<sup>st</sup> qibla’.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">But the question still remains: ‘how was the qibla changed?’</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>God Establishes a new Focal Point (Qibla): </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Here is a clear 'turning' away from the existing focal point to newer one.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In-fact, this is where traditions and archeology meet with the Scripture as they relate that when the prophet came to Medina, he set the focal point towards the North East (in this case they claim Jerusalem), and that after a period of time he set it in the opposite direction.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">What is an interesting point to note is that if we drew a straight line from Medina to Jerusalem (in-line with the original qibla as per the Scripture), and then we extend the same line completely in the opposite direction (in-line with the turning away from the qibla as per the Scripture), we see that the alleged temple of Mecca, contrary to what the Sunnis and Shia claimed,  does not come onto this path.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/009.png" style="height:359px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>An imaginary line drawn from Medina to Jerusalem and opposite.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Why Change to a New Focal Point?</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Establishing a new 'Focal Point' (or Qibla) has precedence in the Quran and was done during the time of the Exodus when Moses and his companions were on the run from Pharaoh and needed to face towards the direction where their enemy would come from during their Salat.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And We inspired to Moses and his brother: “Let your people leave their homes in Egypt, and let these homes be your focal point (Qibla) and uphold the contact-method. And give good news to the believers.” (Qur'an 10:87)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">As for Mohammed's people...it was a 'test' of sorts:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And as such, We have made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We did not make the focal point that you became on except to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. It was a great thing indeed except for those whom God had guided; God was not to waste your belief. God is Merciful and Compassionate over the people.” (Qur'an 2:143)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Medina/Yathrib Expansion: </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">During his time in Yathrib, <strong>Mohammed</strong> and his followers were forced into a number of conflicts which gave them governance over lands/areas they had previously not been involved with.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And He inherited you their land, their homes, their money, and lands you had never stepped on. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 33:27)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And recall when you were but a few who were weak in the land, you were fearful that men might capture you. But He sheltered you, and He supported you with His victory, and He provided you with good provisions, so that you may be thankful.” (Qur'an 8:26)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Financial Growth &amp; Development: </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“You should know: “Of anything you gain, that one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer.” You will do this if you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the day of the Criterion, the day the two armies clashed. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 8:41)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Military Strategy &amp; Experience: </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">It was during this ‘Yathrib Campaign' that it would seem most of the warfare' verses were revealed (4:77, 47:20, 2:217).</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And prepare for them all that you can of might, and from the steeds of war, that you may instil fear with it towards God’s enemy and your enemy, and others beside them whom you do not know but God knows them. And whatever you spend in the cause of God will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged.” (Qur'an 8:60)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Rome was to be fought! </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">This was a prediction of the inevitable battle against an organized and well trained army...The results as we shall see were quite disastrous.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Say to those Nomads who lagged behind: “You will be called on to fight a people who are very powerful in warfare, unless they surrender. Then if you obey, God will grant  you a good reward, but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful retribution.” (Qur'an 48:16)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">--------------------</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part IV – Baca/Jerusalem is liberated</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Roman Victory, Muslim Loss; </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The Romans have won*, at the lowest point** on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">* Most translation have made a mistake in the vowels of 30:2-4 thinking (or making us think) that Rome was 'Defeated' then 'Won'.  They claim that the reason the Muslims ‘rejoiced’ during the victory of Rome was because it was a war between Rome and Persia, and the Muslims rejoiced that Rome had won since Rome was a Christian nation and thus closer to their beliefs. This explanation is nonsense due to: a) there is no room for a 3rd party to be included in the verse context (Persia?), and b) Christianity with its trinity and son of God teachings is closer to paganism than monotheism (the heavens shake from such claims!). We should also keep in-mind that original Arabic was written with no vowel marks, thus by simply looking at the context, and switching the vowel markings, then we can see that the proper context becomes Rome ‘winning’ and then ‘losing’ at which point the Muslims rejoice - which makes a world of sense.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">**Note that the 'lowest part of the earth' is a dead giveaway that the battle was fought near the Dead Sea as it is the lowest body   of water  on Earth, lying 408 meters  (1,340 feet)  below  sea level.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The battle where Rome defeated the Muslims could be the archeologically supported battle of 'Mutah' of 632 A.D. In this first major battle between the Muslims and Rome, the Muslim army was decimated with a retreat called to save as many lives as possible. The battle has been  reported as follows:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">“One hundred thousand Roman soldiers, sent by the Roman king were armed to teeth with war equipment. They were also skilled at various war methodologies. They formulated contingents of six thousand soldiers, each called a "Legion". The Legion was divided into thirty groups, each of which was called "Manipool". Each Manipool consisted of two hundred soldiers. This was further subdivided into two groups each with one hundred soldiers and was called "Century". All the Roman soldiers wore steel helmets and armour. Their shields were large and their spears and swords extraordinarily long. They were also familiar with the formation of flanks.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The commander of the Islamic army, Zayd bin Harith zealously said, "We have come to fight in the way of Allah, if we kill the enemy for victory, Paradise is our reward. The same is ours if we die and are defeated. Only those fear the enemy numbers who lack Faith in the hereafter. Why should we be afraid of the numbers of the enemy?" These words of Zayd bin Harith induced rejuvenation among the Muslims and they became prepared for the battle. " (<a href="http://www.usf.edu.pk/wyw-35.html">http://www.usf.edu.pk/wyw-35.html</a>)</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/010.jpg" style="height:376px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Mut'ah is located just south of Karak, near the Dead Sea</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">The results of the battle of Mut’ah (according to history) were disastrous for the Muslim army. Zeid and a large number of his comrades were killed, while the leadership of the army fell by default to Khalid Bin Al-Waleed who, in the face of defeat, called for an immediate retreat of all remaining fighters/soldiers. The remains of some of the most prominent figures who took part in the battle of Mut’ah are still found at that location:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"The most important companions of the Prophet buried in Jordan include: Zeid ibn al-Haritha; Ja’far bin Abi Talib (cousin of the Prophet and elder brother of Ali, who was the husband of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima and the father of al-Hassan and al-Hussein); Abu ‘Ubaydah ‘Amer Ibn al-Jarrah (one of the "Blessed Ten" companions promised Paradise); Mu’ath bin Jabal (the Prophet’s governor in Yemen); Shurhabil bin Husna (the Scribe of the Qur’anic Revelation), and Dirar bin al-Azwar (a great general). In fact, many more companions of the Prophet are buried in Jordan." (<a href="http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/tourism7.html">http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/tourism7.html</a>)</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/011.jpg" style="height:194px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Above is the tomb of *Zeid as well as other reported companions of the prophet buried at Mutah</em>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">*It should be mentioned that 'Zeid' (the prophet's adopted son) is one of the few people mentioned by name in the Scripture (33:37)</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Victory against Rome.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After a few years from the initial battle and defeat of the Muslims, a new battle was to be fought in which the Muslims would be granted victory by the grace of God...</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>Roman Loss,  Muslim Victory;. </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The Romans have won, at the lowest point on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">In fulfillment of God’s promise, and in confirming the truth of the prophecy, the Muslim army once again set out to battle mighty Rome. This event fits the description of either the historic 'Battle of Tabuk' that has been reported as the Prophet Mohammed's final military campaign before his death, or the 'Battle of Yarmouk' which occured immediately after the death of Mohammed and where Rome was openly defeated and Jerusalem liberated.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/012.gif" style="height:376px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Tabuk is in northwest quarter of Arabia, near the border of today’s Jordan</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, before the battle against Rome, there was one small matter that needed to be dealt with...</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Back to Lot.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Looking at the map of the area between Medina and Jerusalem, it becomes evident that the town of Petra is situated along the way to the north of Medina.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/013.jpg" style="height:460px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-justify">The town of Lot appears for all purposes to have been the historic `Mecca` which is mentioned in the Quran as being a source of threat and an obstacle to the prophet and his companions making their way to the Restricted Temple of Jerusalem:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">"And He is the One who withheld their hands against you, and your hands against them in the interior of <u>Mecca</u>, after He had made you victorious over them. God is Seer of what you do. <u>They are the ones who rejected and barred you from the Restricted Temple, and barred your donations from reaching their destination</u>. And there had been believing men and women whom you did not know, and you may have hurt them, and on whose account you would have committed a sin unknowingly. God will admit into His mercy whomever He wills. Had they become separated, We would then have punished those of them who rejected with a painful retribution." (Qur'an 48:24-25)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">From reading the military objectives and the Scripture, it appears that the final victory against Rome and the retaking of Jerusalem was dependant on capturing the town of Petra/Mecca, and if so, then this explains why the prophet and his companions are spoken of as being physically in or around the town where Lot had lived:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">"And Lot was one of the messengers. When We saved him and all his family. Except an old woman who remained. Then, We destroyed the rest. <u>And you pass by their ruins in the morning; And in the night</u>. Do you not understand?" (Qur'an 37:133-138)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">The only way to pass by the ruins of a people during the day and the night is if you were living in the very same place or extremely nearby...This evidence confirms that the prophet and his companions, during the revelation of the above verses, were indeed located at the ancient town of Lot - Petra/Mecca.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Rome Defeated.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After the capture of Mecca/Petra, the army, with <strong>Mohammed</strong> at its head, found a complete collapse of Roman fighting spirit and will:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"Muhammad had been giving to Byzantium a good portion of his thought and careful planning. He was convinced that Muslim power at the northern frontier with al Sham should be firmly established if those who had been evacuated from the Peninsula and who had emigrated to Palestine were not to return and attack again. It was in consequence of this care that Muhammad mobilized a very massive army when he heard that the Byzantines were about to advance on the northern frontier, and he himself led that army all the way to Tabuk. The Byzantines had withdrawn toward the interior upon hearing of the march of that army." (<a href="http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/prophets_sickness_and_death.htm">click here for source</a>).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Restricted Temple is finally  liberated: </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">After what seems like an impossibility...<strong>Mohammed</strong> is finally home...The Temple at Baca/Jerusalem is liberated:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“God has fulfilled with truth His messenger's vision: “You will enter the Restricted Temple, God willing, secure*, with your heads shaven and shortened, having no fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He has coupled with this a near victory.” (Qur'an 48:27)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">* Please note that 'secure' could be understood as the prophecy that there would be no resistance, and that Rome would capitulate and give-up the land of God’s Temple.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The son/prophet of Baca has now returned to his homeland, and has finally been able to defeat those that fought to suppress and oppress him and his people...</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>The Original Qibla Re-established.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The Focal Point (Qibla) is Shifted Back to Baca/Jerusalem.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">It can be hypothesized that the change in qibla away from Jerusalem was one of the largest single contributors to the situation we see today where Muslims do not follow God’s system. This hypothesis would make the most sense especially of the re-shifting of the qibla back to Jerusalem did not take place until close to the end of the prophet’s life, soon after or during his liberation of Baca/Jerusalem:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)</span></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And as such, We have made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We did not make the focal point that you became on except to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. It was a great thing indeed except for those whom God had guided; God was not to waste your belief. God is Merciful and Compassionate over the people.” (Qur'an 2:143)</span></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“We see the shifting of thy face towards the sky; We will thus set for you a focal point that will be pleasing to you: “You shall set yourself towards the Restricted Temple; and wherever you may be, you shall all set yourselves towards it.” Those who have been given the Scripture know it is the truth from their Lord. And God is not unaware of what you do.” (Qur'an 2:144)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And wherever you go out, you shall set yourself towards the Restricted Temple. And wherever you may be you shall set yourselves towards it; that the people will have no room for debate with you, except those of them who are wicked. You shall not fear them, but fear Me; so that I may complete My blessings upon you and that you may be guided.” (Qur'an 2:150)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">The Muslims today are confused to the above verses in thinking that the shift towards the ‘Restricted Temple’ was God’s command for <strong>Mohammed</strong> when he shifted away from Jerusalem (and they assume towards the shrine of Mecca). The problem with this understanding is that in 2:142 the “change” had already taken place and the people were commenting about it (i.e. 'what made them change from their Qibla?'). While in 2:144 the Prophet is given “new” instructions to use the focal point of the “Restricted Temple” (which cannot be Mecca because the first change of Qibla that was meant to be a “test” has already happened and thus the people were all facing the focal point opposite Jerusalem).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>The prophet foretold in the 'Scriptures' has finally come to pass: </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel, I am God's messenger to you, authenticating what is present with me of the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be ‘most acclaimed.’ But when he showed them the clear proofs, they said: ‘This is clearly magic’” (Qur'an 61:6)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>And the prayer of Abraham has been answered... </em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Our Lord, and send amongst them a messenger from among themselves, that he may recite to them Your revelations and teach them the Scripture and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an 2:129)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">-----------------</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part V – Mecca Arabia</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>What of Today's Mecca? </em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Today's Mecca - Arabia, seems to have been an insignificant town at the time of the prophet. This city was not on any significant trade-route at the time nor does its name even have mention in any historical manuscripts which covered the area.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Mecca appears to have been a pagan center where the religion of the Nabataens (worship of Allat, Uzzah, and Manaat) flourished like other Nabataen towns. The Kaba (cube) which was used as the center of pagan rituals, is an emulation of the Kaba of Abraham which the Nabataens may have certainly come to know through the call of Abraham to the pilgrimage many centuries ago.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Points that are worth reflecting when studying the subject of Mecca - Arabia include:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">1. The mosque in Medina with 2 qiblas did not correctly point to Mecca - Arabia.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The physical evidence which shows that the turning of the qibla away from Jerusalem was simply in the ‘opposite’ direction and not towards Mecca has been conveniently destroyed by the Saudis and a new mosque has been rebuilt with two qiblas, but with the second `new` qibla now aligned towards Mecca.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/014.jpg" style="height:246px; width:350px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/015.jpg" style="height:235px; width:350px" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>The Mosque in Medina with the two focal points (Qiblas) seen above has been re-built by the Saudi Royal Family during the last 30 or so years.</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">2. A number of mosques built in the early days after the prophet’s death have their qiblas aligned away from Mecca and further north, closer to Jerusalem.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">"According to archaeological research carried out by Creswell and Fehervari on ancient mosques in the Middle East, two floor-plans from two Umayyad mosques in Iraq, one built at the beginning of the 8th century by the governor Hajjaj in Wasit (noted by Creswell as, "the oldest mosque in Islam of which remains have come down to us" - Creswell 1989:41), and the other attributed to roughly the same period near Baghdad, have Qiblas (the direction which these mosques are facing) which do not face Mecca, but are oriented too far north (Creswell 1969:137ff &amp; 1989:40; Fehervari 1961:89; Crone-Cook 1977:23,173). The Wasit mosque is off by 33 degrees, and the Baghdad mosque is off by 30 degrees (Creswell 1969:137ff; Fehervari 1961:89)."  </p> <p class="text-align-justify">3. The location of the Kaaba in Mecca at the floor of a valley (where it is prone to flash floods) is more in-line with pagan rites than those of offering people sanctuary and safety at God’s Temple.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">“The Ka’bah is situated in a wadi between two low hills, Marwah and Safa and was thus frequently exposed to flash floods caused by upper Meccan rainwater which ran down into the wadi and was channeled towards the Ka’bah. It is on the face of it, strange to find a religious center built in such a dangerous position, but it is precisely in such a position – low on the slopes of a wadi subject to flash floods – that cult centers were situated in the Negev.” (The Origins of the Muslim Descriptions of the Jahili Meccan Sanctuary; Yehuda D. Nevo, Judith Koren, Jan. 1990)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">4. The rituals associated with Mecca until today are all indicative of the pagan rites known and recorded for the region at the time.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/016.gif" style="height:150px; width:203px" />  <img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/017.jpg" style="height:150px; width:123px" />  <img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/018.jpg" style="height:150px; width:90px" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Pagan elements associated with the Kaba in Mecca</em>.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">“The precise alignment of the Black Stone with the winter sunrise is not coincidental. Allat, the main idol of the prophet's people, was a fertility goddess and this is confirmed by archeological evidence from Nabataean sites. As typical of such fertility goddesses their symbols and rituals are related to the sun. In this case, the direction of the winter sunrise marks the location where the sun is "reborn". Now if you take a closer look, you will see that the enclosure of the Black Stone is in the shape of a dilated female vulva and the Black Stone is in the shape of the crown of the head of the newborn baby deity as it is coming out of the vulva.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Come closer yet and you will see that people are kissing the head of the newborn baby deity. Kissing the head is an ancient Arab tradition for asking for forgiveness. So kissing the top of the head of the newborn idol as traditionally done to ask for forgiveness, results in the pagan's sins being wiped out as if he or she was a newborn.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Hang around for a while and you will observe that people spin seven times around the Black Stone. A pre-quranic manuscript written by Epiphanius in the fourth century CE describes the ritual of spinning seven times as part of the birth festivals of the Nabataean idols Allat and Dhushara around the winter solstice. The number seven was considered sacred in Arab and pagan symbolism in general because of the five sacred planets plus the sun and the moon that the ancients venerated. To this day many people in the Arab world celebrate what is termed in Arabic Subu', which is a traditional festival that takes place on the seventh day after the birth of a newborn and on the seventh day after a pilgrims' return. Like the pagan pilgrimage that we observed and Epiphanius described, as part of the Subu' birth celebrations, people traditionally go around the house seven times while carrying the newborn baby. (<a href="http://www.free-minds.org/ayman">http://free-minds.org//ayman</a>)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>What of the Safa &amp; Marwa and other sites at Mecca?</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the Sanctuary, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">The entire story of ‘Abraham marrying his slave girl Hajar and then leaving her in the wilderness with Ismail based on the wishes of his wife Sarah’ not only has no basis whatsoever in the Book of God, but also conflict greatly with the character of a Prophet who is devoted to God and who would never be pressured by any human into abandoning or harming another person(s). As far as we can ascertain, Abraham was married to one woman, the same woman who gave him Ismail and then, many years later, Isaac. We can also ascertain that Abraham lived near the area of the Temple (Jerusalem)  and therefore would not have traveled many thousands of kilometers to carry out such an act of inhumanity.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">With regards to Jerusalem, if we are looking for two rock outcroppings, then they are easily located. The rock that resides inside the” Dome of the Rock” as well as the rock that resides under the “Dome of Tablets” are both located on the Temple area and appear to be of significance to the site.  </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/019.jpg" style="height:168px; width:250px" />  <img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/020.jpg" style="height:167px; width:250px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Images of the Rock outcropping in the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of Tablets</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø <em>What of the ‘People of the Elephant’</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with fiery projectiles. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-5)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">The Mecca propagandists have attributed he above verses to their religious town claiming that God, before the birth of <strong>Mohammed</strong>, sent birds to destroy the elephant army of Abraha, who had journeyed all the way from Africa (Habasha) to destroy the temple at Mecca since it was competing with his call for an organized religion.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, upon closer examination of the verses, it appear that the people who are being referred to as ‘people of the elephant’ are none other than the people of Lot who were identified in the Scripture as being destroyed by ‘fiery projectiles’:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with <strong>fiery projectiles</strong>. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-<strong>5</strong>)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“They said: ‘O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?’ So when Our command came, We turned it upside down, and We rained on it with hardened <strong>fiery projectiles</strong>.” (Qur'an11:81-82)</span></p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;"> “Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with <strong>fiery projectiles</strong>.” (Qur'an 15:74)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Such understanding perfectly matches the view that the city of Lot was the original `Mecca` mentioned in the Quran as being defiant to the prophet and his campaign.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">--------------------------</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Part VI - Questions/Misc.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø       <em>Baca/Jerusalem - How Was it Forgotten?</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">One of the most alarming points raised in this article is how the city of Jerusalem and home to Abraham and Mohammed and many prophets in-between lost its significance and became of secondary importance for the people who claimed to be followers of the last prophet!</p> <p class="text-align-justify">There are three main reasons that may be viewed as being factors in this historic confusion:</p> <p class="text-align-justify">1.        The change in the Qibla;</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">2.        God’s decree that allows interference with the delivery of His Message;</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“We have permitted the enemies of every prophet, human and Jinn devils, to inspire in each other with fancy words in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. You shall disregard them and their fabrications. That is so the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter will listen to it, and they will accept it, and they will take of it what they will.” (Qur'an 6:112-113)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">3.        God’s pledge revealed in the final Scripture to keep His Temple ‘off-limits’ to idolaters;</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“O you who believe, those who have set up partners are impure, so let them not approach the Restricted Temple after this calendar year of theirs; and if you fear poverty, then God will enrich you from His blessings if He wills. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.” (Qur'an 9:28)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø       <em>Previous Structures Preceding the Dome of the Rock;</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Since the location of God’s Temple is deemed to be that where the current Dome of the Rock stands, then it should stand that the structure (or its foundation) must have existed on this site since the time of Abraham?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Research shows that indeed the Dome of the Rock has ancient foundations carrying the same octagonal shape as seen in the infra-red photo below.  </p> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/021.jpg" style="height:544px; width:350px" /></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Infra-red image showing ancient foundation for the Dome of the Rock.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">It should be noted that all sites were centered around the outcropping rock, also known as the ‘holy of holies’ in Jewish tradition.</p> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Misc.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø       <em>The History of the Arabs;</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">During the course of this research, a number of interesting facts came to light which, when viewed with the information revealed in the Scripture, gave us a more detailed knowledge of our ancient past.</p> <p class="text-align-justify">§         Arabic language originated with the Nabataen’s – who’s kingdom was the area of today’s Jordan and stretched to include Jerusalem and parts of Arabia. This information is relevant as the Scripture was revealed in an Arabic tongue.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/022.gif" style="height:333px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“We have sent it down an Arabic compilation, perhaps you will comprehend.” (Qur'an 12:2)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">In addition, The Aramaic-speaking Nabataeans created a new writing form to add to those in use in the Middle East of their day. They developed a running "cursive" or semi-ligatured script, which was used for both lapidary inscriptions and more common graffiti. This writing form would later evolve into the "Arabic" writing still in use today. (<a href="http://touregypt.net/featurestories/petra1.htm">source</a>)</p> <p class="text-align-justify">§         Nabataen’s were dedicating worship to female god’s named ‘Allat, Uzzah, and Manaat’ in addition to the main deity Allah.</p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/023.jpg" style="height:166px; width:200px" />      <img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/024.jpg" style="height:166px; width:119px" /></p> <p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Allat (found at the temple of the winged lions) &amp; Uzzah (found carved at the treasury) (<a href="http://nabataea.net/gods.html">see link</a>)</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“Have you considered Allaat and Al-`Uzzah? And Manaat, the third one?” (Qur'an 53:19-20)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"> “The Temple is the most important Nabataean temple discovered up to the present time. Seen by the excavator as dedicated to the goddess 'Allat, one of the three major pre-Islamic female deities, the Temple is really a complex of related facilities, including a worship center, residential quarters, and workshops, a combination never before seen in Nabataean religious installations.”</p> <p class="text-align-justify">(<a href="http://todacosa.com/petra/aep/temple-winged-lions.htm" target="_blank">http://todacosa.com/petra/aep /temple-winged-lions.htm</a>).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">In-fact, other historians who have studied the 'Nabataeans' have concluded that they worshipped a 'Triple' female god-head (The chief Nabatean goddess was al-Uzza, who reigned with her sisters Allat and Manat).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Ø       <em>Israel and the Temple (Jerusalem);</em></p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And We decreed to the Children of Israel in the Scripture, that you will make corruption twice on Earth, and that you will become very high and mighty.” (Qur'an 17:4)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">A prophecy has existed in the Scripture that did not begin to materialize until this last century...The Children of Israel were destined to regroup and gain strength and influence in the world (as began in 1948).</p> <p class="text-align-justify">However, this prophecy is very bad news for the Children of Israel as it will conclude with their humiliation and complete defeat at the hands of a people who will retake God’s Temple.</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“If you (Children of Israel) do good, then it will be good for you, and if you do bad, then so be it. But when the promise of the second time comes, they will make your faces filled with sorrow and they will enter the Temple as they did the first time, and they will strike down all that was raised up.” (Qur'an 17:7)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify">Which Temple is being referred to here?</p> <p class="text-align-justify">The Zionists have taken physical control of Jerusalem and its Temple since 1967 and are working continually to make it their capital. Unless the Zionists plan to physically move on Mecca – Arabia, then it is safe to pronounce that this Jerusalem Temple is the one that will be liberated as its was the first time during the prophet’s mission:</p> <blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“God has fulfilled with truth His messenger's vision: “You will enter the Restricted Temple, God willing, secure, with your heads shaven and shortened, having no fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He has coupled with this a near victory.” (Qur'an 48:27)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"><strong>Questions to be Asked.</strong></p> <p class="text-align-justify">If, as a Muslim, you totally reject the above article as being preposterous or made-up, regardless of the physical evidence that has been presented, then please ask yourself the following questions:</p> <ol><li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why did the early Muslims according to the evidence conduct the Salat facing Jerusalem (1<sup>st</sup> Qibla) if Mecca was the location for God’s Temple?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why is there a clear contradiction in the Sunni/Shia traditions whereby they claim that Mohammed only faced Jerusalem for about 18 months after arriving to Medina (i.e. until 624 A.D. which corresponds to his 2<sup>nd</sup> year of the Hijra), yet they neglect to mention that Jerusalem was also his qibla for the 12 previous years since he apparently declared his messengership in 610 A.D?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why does Islamic tradition hold that the Prophet journeyed to Jerusalem before his ascension to heaven during the ‘night journey’?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Since you believe that Abraham (and Ismail) raised the foundations of the Kaaba in Mecca, then why do the faiths after Abraham (Jewish &amp; Christian) not acknowledge that Abraham traveled as far south as Mecca or that their pilgrimage was to that area?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why does God speak of “figs &amp; olives” in association with the Temple (see 95:1) while figs and olives are native to the Mediterranean area (Jerusalem), but not to the region of Mecca Arabia?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Do you accept the physical evidence that the Arabic language as revealed in the Scripture is a product of the Nabataens who were dominant in the Jordan/Palestine area?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Can you find Mecca - Arabia as being on any ancient trade map, or recorded as a center for pilgrimage or major religious activity before the 7<sup>th</sup> century A.D?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Do you believe the remains of Lot's town are near the town of Mecca - Arabia, or, are they nearer to the town of Jerusalem?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why is the rock outcropping (which is attributed as “Maqam Ibrahim”) located inside the Temple at Jerusalem (as per the description given in 3:98) while the “Maqam Ibrahim” in Mecca is located outside the shrine/temple conflicting with the description given in the Scripture?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why was Mohammed adamant on facing the mighty Roman (Byzantium) army to the North. Did the Roman's hold something dear to make him take such a risk?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why did Abdel Malik renovate the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and send an army at the same time against Mecca to destroy the Kaaba with catapults?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why did Abdel Malik call people to pilgrim to Jerusalem and away from Mecca as per some historians?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why did the Caliph Suleyman  as late as 717 A.D. show confusion in whether it was Mecca or Jerusalem that the pilgrimage should be conducted to? (<a href="http://www.debate.org.uk/topics/isamasih/apr99/archeo.htm">see source</a>)</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why does the prophecy associated with Israel’s 2<sup>nd</sup> rising speak of their defeat by the retaking of the ‘Temple’? Is Israel planning to occupy Mecca any time in the future? Or, is God speaking of His Temple in Jerusalem that they have already occupied during the 1967 war?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why is the ‘kaaba’ of Mecca located at the base of a valley where it is prone to flash floods? Is this in-line with the monotheistic purpose of providing a sanctuary for the pilgrims, or, is it related to the pagan practices of Arabia as found at other such sites in the Negev?</li> <li class="rtejustify text-align-justify">Why do pilgrims in Mecca circle around the cube 7 times, as well as running between two hills 7 times? Does this seem to be an act associated with God’s system where He asks us to ‘think’ and ‘reason’, or, is it more associated with the empty pagan rituals of the time?</li> </ol><p class="text-align-justify">Answering these questions may lead you on the journey that needs to be taken about now...</p> <p class="text-align-justify">Or, you may simply continue on the same path you found your parents and peers upon.</p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p class="text-align-justify"><img src="/sites/default/files/images/moh/025.jpg" style="height:262px; width:350px" /></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="rtecenter text-align-justify"><em>Worshippers giving their backs to the Temple/Shrine first raised by Abraham</em></p> <p class="text-align-justify">Perhaps it is time to once again walk in the footsteps of our Patriarch Abraham by calling for the great pilgrimage and assembling mankind to honor the blessings of the Lord… </p> <blockquote> <p class="rtejustify text-align-justify"><span style="color:#b22222;">“And call out to mankind with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure. So that they may witness benefits for themselves and recall God’s name in the appointed days over what He has provided for them of the animal livestock. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor. Then let them complete their duties and fulfill their vows, and let them partake at the ancient Sanctuary.” (Qur'an 22:27-29)</span></p> </blockquote> <p class="text-align-justify"> </p> <hr /><p class="rtecenter text-align-center">Written for <a href="www.free-minds.org">www.free-minds.org</a></p> </div> Sun, 21 Aug 2011 07:39:02 +0000 admin 51 at https://free-minds.org