Author Topic: Non-Muslim TESTIMONY of pilgrimage in the first century after 632 and others...  (Read 563 times)

Iyyaka

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Salam,

I would like to share with you an article in french that you can find here https://www.academia.edu/37827400/Pour_une_approche_historico-critique_impartiale_des_d%C3%A9buts_de_lislam
about Non-Muslim testimony of pilgrimage in the first century after 632.
A very good summary of modern researches.

An extract with google traduction (so not perfect - sorry) :
"
External historical testimonies on the Hajj pilgrimage:

-The chronicle of Khuzistan (around 660 CE)
The chronicler mentions the "Dome/cupola of Abraham (qwbth d-abrhm)" and notes that the Arabs affirm that Abraham "built this place of the" Dome/cupola" for the worship (SGDT) of God and for the offering of sacrifices."
 
He further adds that they (the Arabs) worship there in honor of Abraham the father and the chief (patriarch) of their people

- The testimony of Anastasius of Sinai (660-690 CE).
This text written in Greek is probably one of the most important testimonies overlooked by researchers, as stated by Dr. Sean Anthony, a contemporary Islamologist at the University of Ohio, Department of Near East Studies. The part that interests us in this writing is the story of a Christian prisoner who was taken captive by the hagarens (Muslims), in the place where those who keep us in slavery "have the stone and the object of their worship ”. Then the captive tells how "they sacrificed countless sheep and camels there."

-The testimony of Jacob of Edessa in his fourth letter to John the Stylite (died in 708 CE)
In a letter that Jacques of Edessa sent to John the Stylite, It evokes the orientation of the prayer of the Jews and the Muslims. This orientation is described as following roughly, the cardinal points, but with the intention, to aim at the respective sacred places:
"[...] Your question is futile ... because it is not to the south that the Jews pray, nor indeed the Muslims (Hagarenes). The Jews who live in Egypt, just like the Muslims, as I have seen with my own eyes and will now establish for you, prayed to the East, and still do, all of them - the Jews to Jerusalem and Muslims to the Kaaba. And the Jews who are south of Jerusalem pray north. And those of the land of Babel, in Hira and Basra, pray to the West, and the Muslims who are there (those of Babel) pray to the West, towards the Kaaba. And those who are south of the Kaaba pray north, towards this place. Thus, from what has been said, it is clear that it is not to the south that Jews and Muslims from Syria pray, but to Jerusalem or the Kaaba, the ancestral place of their people […] ".

- An Arabic papyrus (86-99 AH / 705-717 CE) from the Oriental Institute of Chicago (17653):
Papyrologist Petra Sipesteijs published it in an article entitled “An Early Umayyad PapyrusInvitation for the Hajj” where she described and analyzed a letter from Prince Umayyade Shal Ibn 'Abd al-Aziz which contains an invitation to a certain 'Uqbah Ibn Muslim to participate in the pilgrimage (al-Hajj).

- Arab graffiti dated 91H / 710 CE It is in the month of Dhul-Qia’da
that a certain Makhled Ibn Abi Makhlad wrote a prayer to implore the forgiveness of God and for his pilgrimage to be accepted.
The inscription is located near Tabuk in the north of Mecca.
"