Author Topic: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40  (Read 626 times)

Iyyaka

  • Apprentice
  • **
  • Posts: 229
Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« on: March 25, 2019, 03:36:43 PM »
Salam Everyone,

By "Semitic Rhetoric" analysis i (re)-discovered Al-Quran Under 3 angles which can be connected or not together :
 - Beauty of the organization of speech at different levels
 - Tasfir (even if i Don't like this word) by God himself
 - Very high precision of each letter, word...

---------- Anyway, GENERAL COMMENT before :

- The opportunity is here offered to briefly recall an essential point of exegetical reflection: The exegete, to obtain his traditionnal meaning had to resort to the principle of the atomized analysis of the Koran; methodology consisting mainly of reducing the text to the unit-verse.

- A body of phrase totally isolated from its context and thus subject to random and arbitrary. Unfortunately, it must be noted that the majority of traditional and "modern" scholars have practiced this cutting, spraying the text in over 6,000 subunits and making the Book only a sum of independent sentences, a non-text.

- The present work alone demonstrates the absolute necessity of going beyond verse-by-verse reading. The Quran is a text, and what text!, Which can only be understood by taking into account its structural integrity. To this end, one can proceed to an analysis of Semitic semiotics or, more exactly, to an analysis according to the rules of the structural semiotics of Revelation. Behind this specialist jargon hides an extremely powerful exegetical tool bringing a structural vision of Revelation.
We are given here the opportunity to make a simple but powerful demonstration.

------- Here is the LITTERAL CONTEXT of the ayat 22:40  ----------------------

(A) - [22:38] God will certainly defend those who have faith.

   (B) - God, indeed, does not like the traitor (1) filled with ingratitude. (2) (a)
   [22:39] Permission is granted to those who are fought because they suffered injustice. (b)

      (C) ? God, indeed, is able to make them victorious.

         (D) - [22:40] To those who have been expelled from their homes, (a)
                Outside all right, (x)
        Only because they said, "God is our Master."(a?)

            (X) - If God did not repel some people by others,

         (D?) - hermitages (or places of retreat) would be demolished,(a)
               as well as places of trade (or markets / trade), (x)
               and the bonds of solidarity (support) (x?)
         and the places of obedient listening (or submission) - where the name of God is abundantly mentioned.(a?)

      (C?) - God, indeed, gives victory to those who support him because God certainly holds Strength and power.

   (B?) - [22:41] To those who, if We establish them in the land exploitation, establish the Salat (1?)
   and give the Zak?t (2?), (a)
   And Order the adequate and forbid the blameworthy. (b)

(A?) - To God returns the final decision.

---------- COMMENT  ----------------------

We will have already noticed that the initial presentation of the translation of this Qur'anic passage does not linearly follow the verse-by-verse division. The verses of the Qur'an do not correspond to independant and autonomous units of meaning placed end to end.
The same order, very often, confuses the reader conditioned by the composition of text according to the rules of Western classicism. At least, it is therefore necessary when reading the text structured according to criteria of meaning, something that the editions of the Koran in Arabic do not offer but sometimes found in the translations, it is here the case. These "assemblages" are often approximate and arbitrary, and totally dependent on translators.

The presentation from the structural point of view of Revelation is radically different.
It obviously takes into account the order of the verses but takes into account the units of meaning in their overall composition.

The "cutting" is thus totally different but, essential fact, directed according to precise principles.
This approach offers a quasi-holographic vision to highlight the major sequences and central themes around which are built according to well-defined rules the additional information.

In the example we have provided, within the structural symmetry, the colorization highlights key words or complementary segments whose association is systematically meaningful.

Thus, in this passage, this presentation immediately shows the structure. It is a concentric exposition, a very common figure in the Koran. Around a center, here "If God did not repel some people by others", the other units are arranged concentrically and symmetrically what we have pointed out by pointing A-B-C-D-X-D'-C'-B'-A'.
The central element represents the main theme around which the additional information is arranged
 
---------- Specific COMMENT on D-D' : ----------------------

           =>  Spiritual/intellectual life
   - "expelled from their homes" corresponding with "ermitages"
   - "they said, "God is our Master." corresponding with "where the name of God is abundantly mentioned."

           => worldly life
   - "Places of trade" & "the bonds of solidarity" corresponding with "right" (Arabic : Haqq) => See [2:275] for commerce versus riba + ayats preceding the word Salawat (give the right to others specially weak like Nissa in the quran)

------------------------

NB : If you Don't know about the principles of "Semitic Rhetoric" here is a link for a brief introduction : https://www.academia.edu/3638025/The_Quran_and_Semitic_Rhetoric_Review_of_Michael_Cuypers_Le_Festin_une_lecture_de_la_sourate_al-M?ida

NB : We can have more proofs by others approach like linguistics..(Wakas already has approached of my traduction in another thread) but it is not the subject of this thread.
But just a comment of the term "Masjid" which is a general term in the quran and not like a only specific trafitional muslims term - Cf. ayat [18:21]

-----------------------

Peace be upon u.

Ayat [22:40 is one of the key ayat to have a sound comprehension of the quran.
But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke - 11:26)

Iyyaka

  • Apprentice
  • **
  • Posts: 229
Re: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« Reply #1 on: November 06, 2019, 04:56:51 AM »
Salam,

More precision and rectification in definition of these 4 words in 22-40 :

(1) ṣawāmiʿu  = Hermitages,
(2) biyaʿun      = Mutual-agreements-at-due-date,
(3) ṣalawātun = Support-owed
(4) masājidu   = the-Places-of-manifestation-of-the-state-of-obedience

Peace
But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke - 11:26)

Iyyaka

  • Apprentice
  • **
  • Posts: 229
Re: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« Reply #2 on: November 06, 2019, 01:48:20 PM »
Salam,

(1)
Another vision of this passage/sign of Allah (hope it will be more clear for some) - from my own translation too.
Rhetoric Structure in A - X - A'

- A -
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Surely Allah defends those-who-have-implemented-the-deposit-of-trust.

    Surely, Allah does not protect any traitor burying-the-divine-graces.
    39 Permission has been granted to those who are fight because they suffered the usurpation-of-their rights.


Surely, Allah, is on their victory surely able.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     - X -
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     40 Those who have been expelled from their place of residence,
     Without any right-well-founded,
     Only because they said, "Our Master is Allah".

          - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
          If Allah does not do the act to repel some people by others,
          - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
     The hermitages would have been strongly-sustained-a-durable-loss,
     As well as the mutual-agreements-at-the-date-due and the supports-owed,
     And the place-of-manifestation-of-the-state of obedience where is mentioned the name-attribute-function of Allah abundantly.

     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- A' -
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Verily Allah, indeed, helps his partisans. Surely Allah is surely the Honorable Capable.

     41 Those who, if We had given them power in the exploitation-land,
     establish the Salat, and gave Zakat,
     and ordained the right and forbidding the blameworthy.


To Allah return the final-decision.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(2)
And a focus of the last textual unity after the CENTRAL member of this passage :
"
     The hermitages would have been strongly-sustained-a-durable-loss,
     As well as the mutual-agreements-at-the-date-due
     and the supports-owed,
     And the place-of-manifestation-of-the-state-of-obedience where is mentioned the name-attribute-function of Allah abundantly.
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- A' -
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Verily Allah, indeed, helps his partisans. Surely Allah is surely the Honorable Capable.

     41 Those who, if We had given them power in the exploitation-land,
          establish the Salat,
          and gave Zakat,
          and ordained the right and forbidding the blameworthy.

To Allah return the final-decision.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"

Peace
But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke - 11:26)

Iyyaka

  • Apprentice
  • **
  • Posts: 229
Re: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« Reply #3 on: November 12, 2019, 01:30:20 PM »
Salam,

I would like to point to another sign of allah totally hidden in the comments and translations (to my modest knowledge) about the following 4 words (I put the traditional and recognized translation next to mine):
(1) ṣawāmi'u = Hermitages or Monasteries?
(2) biya'un = Mutual-agreements-at-due-date or churches?
(3) ṣalawātun = Support-owed or Synagogues?
(4) masajidu = the-Places-of-manifestation-of-the-state-of-obedience or mosques?

Ok, now let's take a look at the syntax and morphology of these 4 words without taking account the conjunctions "and":
(1) ṣawāmi'u = N - nominative masculine plural noun
(2) biya'un = N - nominative feminine plural indefinite noun
(3) ṣalawātun = N - nominative feminine plural indefinite noun
(4) masājidu = N - nominative masculine plural noun

Do you notice that the mark of the indefinite form ONLY concerns the two middle words and not the first and the fourth ones ?
So, why this syntactic difference of treatment IF the 4 words designated names of places of worship ?
And why this difference precisely on the 2 words that according to the composition of the text does not refer to places of worship well known?
I let you meditate on it.

NB : In 2-157 it is ridiculous to translate the form "ṣalawātun" (indéfinite too) by Synagogues..Ok, we will retort me to take into account the context..Ok ok..The context..

Peace and may Allah guide us to the true
But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke - 11:26)

Noon waalqalami

  • Advanced Truth Seeker
  • ****
  • Posts: 1718
Re: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« Reply #4 on: November 13, 2019, 01:30:00 AM »
(2) biya'un = Mutual-agreements-at-due-date or churches?

(2) biya'un = N - nominative feminine plural indefinite noun

peace

2:254 بىع bayun/commerce 
(with fatha; small dash above ب )

بَيْع sell/sale/commerce

22:40 وبىع wabiyaun 
(with kasra; small dash below ب )

بِيعَةً church

بِيعَتَكُمْ church yours

بِيعَتَنَا church ours

بِيَعَهَا churches hers/theirs (i.e. group)

See usage:
https://sunnah.com/abudawud/20/114
https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah/4/6

Likewise, collective group e.g. people, objects, etc. can be feminine; use context/cross-reference diacritical marks not necessary in oldest manuscripts ...

6:97 وهو and he الذى the one جعل made لكم for you النجوم the stars (masculine pl.) لتهتدوا to thou guided ye of بها biha/by her/it/them (collective group is feminine) فى in ظلمت darkness البر the dry land والبحر and the sea قد hence فصلنا explain we of الاىت the signs لقوم for folk ىعلمون knowing

22:40 … صومع sawamiu (m/p) وبىع wabiyaun (m/p) وصلوت wasalawatun (f/p) ومسجد wamasajidu (m/p) ىذكر remembered/mentioned فىها fiha/in her (therein) …



Tübingen, Universitätsbibliothek: Ma VI 165
649-675, CE (95,4%) ¹⁴C dating
https://corpuscoranicum.de/handschriften/index/sure/22/vers/40/handschrift/107

Birmingham, Cadbury Research Library (University of Birmingham): Islamic Arabic 1572
568-645, CE (95.4%) ¹⁴C dating


Iyyaka

  • Apprentice
  • **
  • Posts: 229
Re: Semitic Rhetoric and ayat 22:40
« Reply #5 on: November 13, 2019, 04:47:02 AM »
Peace Noon waalqalami,

Thank you for links and the picture.

But what's you goal of your intervention ?

(1) My approach is synchronic so yes the form is biya..No problem with that
(2) Biha ? Yes i know the grammatical rule (Already put a post about it) but here biha refers only to masjids
(3) My advice : Be focus FIRST on what say al quran and specially by his structuration (the goal of this post) and intra-textuality, and AFTER look at hadiths if they fit in with al Quran.
But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke - 11:26)