The idea of 'reincarnation', once considered as 'blasphomous' by the western world (middle east included) which was under heavy influence of Judeo-Christianity-Islam religion is gaining a momentum nowadays..
Infact, today's Judaism has somehow embraced the idea of 'reincarnation'..
Starting from late 20th century, the idea of 'reincarnation' started to enter 'scientific community'.. 'western scientific community' to be exact with pioneer like Dr Ian Stevenson. He has written many papers and books relating to the research on the topic.
Just google his name to see his presentation / documentary video or paper.
He has recorded myriad of convincing cases of children who has memory of his/her past life... and all of the information given by the child about his/her past identity and life can be confirmed to be correct.
Interesting enough there are also cases where a boy lived a past identity as a girl and vice versa..
Ancient Judaism does seem to have supported and even embraced the concept of reincarnation. It appears that somewhere between 500BC and 1000AD (probably even later) that clergymen gave their reinterpretation of things without the ability to understand older writings. When reading Jesus utterance as he heals a blind man's eyes of saying "you are forgiven" it indicates the man must have done something prior to his birth as he was apparently born blind.
And that is hardly a forgiving because he had done some silly original sin in a kind of paradise, and how unfair is that god in punishing all mankind for a mistake one (or two) people did? That traditional story is not consistent.
And to expand with philosophy, how fair is it that the man was born blind while others are not?
And how fair is it that some people are born in wartorn regions while some are born in (so far) harmonious European countries?
And how consistent is it with having lived only that life? A reasonable person would require a more logically sound answer.
The simple explanation is that it is because of what they have previously done. One shall reap what they have sown. What goes around comes around. One should experience something of the full magnitude of their deeds (an adaptation of what Yesaya said).
The sect Islam is just an invention by separatist Persian Jewish clergymen with significant influence enough to rally for a new religion. Mostly everything they interpreted to be against is actually the truth, although slightly misrepresented. That you are a kind of "child of God" is true. That you are to be affiliated/associated with God is true. That you should be one in the originator and the originator in you is true. That you "stay in the fire" for only a number of days is true. That knowledge was from before the uprisings of the mighty Persian (Pharisee) Jewish clergymen beginning before Jesus and onwards for a millennium or so until all opposition and their knowledge was lost although yet relatively preserved in East Asian faith systems. People may have immigrated westward or embraced Christianity or let themselves be assimilated in the new sect Islam. I know many had gone into disputes and diverted into own sects which lived forth into the 1200s AD and fragments of their teachings are still alive today.