Author Topic: research on "is music good for children"  (Read 1037 times)


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research on "is music good for children"
« on: May 11, 2015, 07:51:09 AM »


One cannot deny the power of music. High school students who study music have higher grade point averages that those who don't. These students also develop faster physically. Student listening skills are also improved through music education. The top three schools in America all place a great emphasis on music and the arts. Hungary, Japan, and the Netherlands, the top three academic countries in the world, all place a great emphasis on music education and participation in music. The top engineers from Silicon Valley are all musicians. Napoleon understood the enormous power of music. He summed it up by saying, "Give me control over he who shapes the music of a nation, and I care not who makes the laws"

The Effect of Music on Peoples Brain Development Is Great………….Gives Them Complex Minds.

The Jews are a very successful people in the world - and love music.


Schoenberg's last words on a sheet of music paper were: "Ich bin ein kleiner Judenbub." (I am a little Jewish boy.) Gustav Mahler used to say: "A Jew is like a swimmer with a short arm. He has to work harder to reach shore." Jews made music out of an awareness of their Jewishness.
That perspective makes a generic concept of "Jewish music" uninteresting and largely irrelevant beside the transformations that Jews brought to music wherever they lived, and the changes that music wrought in the matter of being Jewish.
Could anyone, I have always wondered, be Jewish without music? "It doesn't matter which you heard," sings Leonard Cohen, "the holy, or the broken." Hallelujah!


                                 The effect of listening classical music is known as "Mozart effect". Music seems to prime our brains for certain kinds of thinking. After listening to classical music, adults can do certain spatial tasks more quickly, such as putting together a jigsaw puzzle. Our improved spatial skills fade about an hour after we stop listening to the music. According to the Center for Music Learning at the University of Texas at Austin, infants can categorize auditory stimuli, such as recognizing that two or more stimuli are different; their research showed infants at seven months could discriminate timbre and melody and could recognize a melody when played on a single instrument. Parents know that shakers quickly become their babies’ favorite toys, and singing a lullaby will quickly lull their infants to sleep. What parents might not realize is that these musical foundations are changing their infant’s brain in ways that will benefit them throughout their lives. Psychologist Dr. Frances Rauscher and neuroscientist Gordon Shaw have conducted many studies with young children investigating the relationship between music and brain development, all of which suggest that early exposure to music increases abilities in many other areas, including math and language. Subsequent research at Brigham Young University suggests music has a positive impact on the physical development of premature infants and can promote calmness in babies.

Does music physically change the brain
And affects our intelligence????


  As humans, we all share one unique feature – the ability to produce and enjoy music. Music is not a new concept though. More than 165,000 years ago, our ancestors have already invented percussion instruments. Today, all societies and cultures have music. With these ancient roots,
Music undoubtedly plays a significant part in our lives today. Over the past ten years, a record number of 297 million Apple IPods alone have been sold around the world. There are reasons for our fondness for music. Music an”ects our emotions and activates certain brain areas, the same centers of the brain for food and drug addictions. It seems that our appreciation for music is innate. Infants, even as young as two months old, turn to pleasant sounds, but away from dissonant, harsh, sounds. This fascination of music has made many scientists ponder – does music an”ECT more than our emotions? Does music physically change the brain and an”ects our intelligence????

This fascination of music has made many scientists ponder – 

   Does music physically change the brain and affect our intelligence

                                        Perhaps one of the most well-known and arguably most controversial phenomena is the Mozart Effect. The term was !rst coined by Dr. Alfred Tomatis, who suggested that listening to compositions of Mozart increases a child’s IQ. This idea has been so favorable and popularized that the Governor of Georgia, Zeal Miller, even proposed a budget to provide all children in Georgia with a CD of classical music. However, there has been great controversy among the scientific community as numerous studies have failed to replicate this ending. Whether music improves intelligence in children remains to be elucidated. However, a new area of research is not studying music in childhood, but music in the womb. At late gestational stage, the fetus can hear sounds from outside the mother, and from these sounds, can become familiarize to her voice. After birth, the infant can distinguish the mother’s voice from others. Since sound plays a role in the development of the fetus in the womb, a central question has arise - does music effect fetal development?

Since it is difficult, unethical and impractical to perform studies on human fetus, much research has been concentrated on the animal model. Whether animals have the same appreciation for music is debatable, but a few studies have found an effect on pre-natal auditory stimulation. One study looked at whether pre-natal auditory stimulation a"ects spatial memory in rats. The researchers exposed pregnant mothers to noise or music for an hour a day until delivery and tested the pubs’ navigational ability in a maze test after birth. They found that the group stimulated with pre-natal music took much less time toned food in a maze compared with the group with no stimulus or the group stimulated with random noise. Interestingly, the group stimulated with random noise performed even worse than the unstipulated group, suggesting it is music, and not random noise, which contributed to the improvement in spatial memory. Similar studies in different animal models have been replicated to correlate prenatal music stimulation with enhancement of spatial learning. In another study, music or no stimulation was provided to fertilized chick eggs. Following hatching, the chicks were trained to perform a similar maze task to test for memory. The researchers found that music-stimulated chicks took less time to reach the target compared with the un-stimulated group. These studies, taken together, suggest that pre-natal auditory stimulation does have an e"ect on learning, at least in the animal model. However, what is the underlying mechanism for these enhancements, and are these changes due to the brain being structurally altered?


Numerous studies have found that pre-natal exposure to music in the animal model increases neurogenesis, the birth of neurons, in the memory-center of the brain, the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a major brain structure present in all mammals involved in the consolidation of short-term to long-term memory, and in spatial navigation. Damages to this area of the brain result in memory loss. Alzheimer’s disease is an example where the loss of memory is largely attributed to damages at the hippocampus. On the contrary, studies have found that increased neurogenesis at the hippocampus enhances memory. Rats stimulated by music before birth display an increase in the birth of neurons at the hippocampus, and an improvement in spatial memory. At the molecular level, music up regulates the expression of proteins involved in the survival of neurons, such as CREB, p-CREB, and BDNF. Music may stimulate an improvement in memory through the increase in neurons at this brain area. The number of synapses of the neurons also increases at the hippocampus. The synapse is a junction that allows neurons to pass chemical signals to another cell for communication. Thus, a neuron with more synapses would be communicating with more neurons. A higher synaptic density has been correlated with improvement in memory. Having neurons that are talking to other neurons more seem to improve spatial memory. Perhaps pre-natal music stimulation changes the expressions of proteins at the molecular level, which allows more neurons to be born and to communicate with one another, leading to an enhancement in spatial memory.
Although both groups received the same routine prenatal care, mothers who listened to music had a lower level of stress, anxiety, and depression scores even only after two weeks.

                                                                                   The mechanism proposed above is that auditory stimulation directly increases neurogenesis at the hippocampus by changing protein levels, leading to an enhancement in memory. However, many debates have been on whether these changes in brain structure are due to indirect effects of music. Perhaps music leads to a secondary effect that causes these differences. One such effect is the lowering of stress. Music is known to be a reliever for stress and anxiety. Music therapy is widely used and is elective in alleviating these symptoms

The effect of music reducing stress and anxiety is also present in pregnant mothers. In a study conducted at the College of Nursing at Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan, the researchers recruited 236 pregnant women in their second or third trimester, all with similar backgrounds in occupation, class, education level, and marital happiness. Half were given CDs and listened to music for half an hour each day. They were given the choice of listening to classical music, nature sounds, Chinese children’s rhymes and songs, or lullabies. The other half did not listen to the CD. Although both groups received the same routine prenatal care, mothers who listened to music had a lower level of stress, anxiety, and depression scores even only after two weeks. As the study’s author, Dr. Chung-Hey Chen, explained in a news release, “Our study shows that listening to suitable music provides a simple, cost-elective and non-invasive way of reducing stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy

                                              Music improves spatial memory in rodents and other animal models. However, one criticism is that humans experience and appreciates music different than animals. Can these non-human studies be applied to us? While there are no studies that look at stimulating pregnant human mothers with music and performing tests on infants, studies do suggest a correlation between musicians and spatial memory. Furthermore, musical training has been found to enhance spatial recognition tasks in pre-school children and improve their learning of mathematics and science. While these effects may be attributed to training and not listening itself, music does seem to have a beneficial effect.

                      "The Mozart Effect" Research

                                  The Mozart effect was first reported in 1993 by scientists at the University of California at Irvine, and replicated by the same group in 1995. The study (which did not look at the effect of Mozart on babies) found that college students who listened to a Mozart sonata for a few minutes before taking a test that measured spatial relationship skills did better than students who took the test after listening to another musician or no music at all.


We generally assume that learning a musical instrument can be beneficial for kids, but it’s actually useful in more ways than we might expect. One study showed that children who had three years or more musical instrument training performed better than those who didn’t learn an instrument in auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills.
They also tested better on vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills, which involve understanding and analyzing visual information, such as identifying relationships, similarities and differences between shapes and patterns.
These two areas in particular are quite removed from musical training as we imagine it, so it’s fascinating to see how learning to play an instrument can help kids develop such a wide variety of important skills.
Similar research shows this correlation for exercise and motor skills in the same way, which is also fascinating.

Building Baby's Brain: The Role of Music
By Diane Bales, Ph.D.
"Researchers believe that musical training actually creates new pathways in the brain."
Music has a powerful effect on our emotions. Parents know that a quiet, gentle lullaby can soothe a fussy baby. And a majestic chorus can make us swell with excitement. But music also can affect the way we think.
In recent years, we've learned a lot about how the brain develops. Babies are born with billions of brain cells. During the first years of life, those brain cells form connections with other brain cells. Over time, the connections we use regularly become stronger. Children who grow up listening to music develop strong music-related connections.
Some of these music pathways actually affect the way we think. Listening to classical music can improve our spatial reasoning, at least for a short time. And learning to play an instrument may have an even longer effect on certain thinking skills.

Does Music Make Us Smarter?
                                                       May be not. Music seems to prime our brains for certain kinds of thinking. After listening to classical music, adults can do certain spatial tasks more quickly, such as putting together a jigsaw puzzle.

Why does this happen?
                                        The classical music pathways in our brain are similar to the pathways we use for spatial reasoning. When we listen to classical music, the spatial pathways are "turned on" and ready to be used.
This priming makes it easier to work a puzzle quickly. But the effect lasts only a short time. Our improved spatial skills fade about an hour after we stop listening to the music.
Learning to play an instrument can have longer-lasting effects on spatial reasoning, however. In several studies, children who took piano lessons for six months improved their ability to work puzzles and solve other spatial tasks by as much as 30 percent.
Why does playing an instrument make such a difference?
                                                                                                      Researchers believe that musical training creates new pathways in the brain.
Why Classical Music?
                                      The music most people call "classical" -- works by composers such as Bach, Beethoven, or Mozart -- is different from music such as rock and country. Classical music has a more complex musical structure. Babies as young as 3 months can pick out that structure and even recognize classical music selections they have heard before.
Researchers think the complexity of classical music is what primes the brain to solve spatial problems more quickly. So listening to classical music may have different effects on the brain than listening to other types of music.
This doesn't mean that other types of music aren't good. Listening to any kind of music helps build music-related pathways in the brain. And music can have positive effects on our moods that may make learning easier.
What Can You Do?
Parents and child-care providers can help nurture children’s love of music beginning in infancy. Here are some ideas:
Play music for your baby. Expose your baby to many different musical selections of various styles. If you play an instrument, practice when your baby is nearby. But keep the volume moderate. Loud music can damage a baby's hearing.
Sing to your baby. It doesn’t matter how well you sing! Hearing your voice helps your baby begin to learn language. Babies love the patterns and rhythms of songs. And even young babies can recognize specific melodies once they've heard them.
Sing with your child. As children grow, they enjoy singing with you. And setting words to music actually helps the brain learn them more quickly and retain them longer. That's why we remember the lyrics of songs we sang as children, even if we haven’t heard them in years.
Start music lessons early. If you want your child to learn an instrument, you don't need to wait until elementary school to begin lessons. Young children's developing brains are equipped to learn music. Most four- and five-year-olds enjoy making music and can learn the basics of some instruments. And starting lessons early helps children build a lifelong love of music.
Encourage your child's school to teach music. Singing helps stimulate the brain, at least briefly. Over time, music education as a part of school can help build skills such as coordination and creativity. And learning music helps your child become a well-rounded person.

What types of music are good for health – which are not?

The most beneficial music for the health of a patient is classical music, which holds an important
Role in music therapy (40). It has been shown that music composed by Bach,
Mozart and Italian composers is the most powerful in “treating” patients. It is possible to select the “ideal” therapy for cardiovascular disturbances, recreation and refreshment of the immune system, improvement of concentration and help with depression. The beneficial effects of Bach’s music is possibly caused by his “mathematical” compositions avoiding sudden changes (Fig. 2,3). Patients who would receive the most benefit from classical music include those with anxiety, depressive syndromes, cardiovascular disturbances and those suffering from pain, stress or sleep disturbances. Popular music is an “eye-opener”. This music incorporates harmonic melodies that will lead to buoyant spirit, good mood leading to lift in mood, in138

When is music not useful?
                                                    More recently, several reports have indicated the usefulness of music therapy in managing psychiatric disorders. Music has been used in the treatment of psychosis and neurosis and now is being used in addressing organic disorders such as dementia. It plays a useful role in allaying anxiety and relaxing patients in critical care. Music therapy has been used effectively in both adults and children with psychiatric disorders. It has been used to modify the behavior of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders with moderate success. It has been used to reduce agitation in patients with dementia by soothing them and eliminating the social isolation of these patients. Music therapy has been used in patients with Parkinson’s disease to improve motor skills and to deal with emotional problems. There is ample evidence of the usefulness of music therapy in alleviating grief and in combating bouts of depression. Music no doubt plays a pivotal role in the lives of human beings. Incorporating music therapy into regular therapy programs for psychiatric disorders can help speed recovery and also help make therapy a more positive experience. Music therapy is a valuable but relatively unexplored asset in the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy. However, the patient may or may not like the music chosen by the therapist and thus is given a choice to include music or not. Careful selection of music that incorporates patient’s own preferences may yield positive results, whereas contrary effects may result from use of the wrong type of music. Selection of “wrong” music can intensify depressive syndromes, aggressiveness and anxiety. In addition, feelings toward music may change during different phases of life and may lead to different effects.

Or at least create a continuous stimulus to the upper brain centers. This might explain the efficacy of music in pathological conditions such as stroke, and it opens new areas for music therapy in rehabilitative medicine. Nevertheless, the possible therapeutic value of Bach’s or Mozart’s music on cardiovascular parameters and health should be a point of immediate interest. The hypothesis that Bach’s or Mozart’s music is helpful on health
Has to be proven by prospective, randomized animal and human being studies.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a musical education in regard to children?

                            Throughout the ages subjects that are considered to be important areas of study have progressed and developed. There are continuously new topics that cause controversy, debate, and interest. One topic that has always seemed to connect people from different cultures, religions, and classes is a common interest and mutual love of music. From the beginning of time music has been a universal language used all over the world. Women would sing to their children long before the days that they could read and write. Whether it is at a funeral, wedding, or birth, music is the one thing that brings the human race together. What is it about music that is so powerful when it comes to communicating with one another? Surely something so universally respected can only have positive effects on the younger generation? Can introducing music at a young age really benefit young children? Or can it have an adverse affect by introducing the ways of the world and even brainwashing children at too early an age? This text will consist of a much deeper study into the subject area to fully understand how music can affect children in today’s society.
‘Creating a better world begins with music at birth’ (Raymond Lap, 2002)
When a baby is first born their eyesight isn’t perfect, but they are able to hear sounds clearly. Sounds are one of the first things that babies can recognise perfectly. As soon as a child is born their brains are like sponges; they are constantly absorbing everything around them. This is why it is important to introduce stimulating activities to babies at as young an age as possible. It is down to parents to create a musically stimulating environment for their children. ‘Babies are born with great potential for learning and it is the environment in which they are brought up that provides the stimulation for what they learn’ (Arnold, 1999, P28). Babies have no control over what music they listen to, this is why it is important for parents to choose music and activities that will stimulate and inspire. In this day and age it is so easy for parents to become reliant on television and computer games rather than introducing their children to more creative activities. “I’m not a creative person” is a saying that is commonly used. In some cases these people may not be very creative, but perhaps some of those people have never been encouraged to be creative or haven’t come from a creative background, therefore never allowing them to develop their own creativity.
Music Education in Regard to Children CM6002 Emily McGregor 1639304
Many people believe that if you are going to be a creative person that you will be born with those underlying talents, but perhaps creativity could be planted in all children if introduced at an early age. ‘Perhaps more families could be musical, artistic, scientifically and humanistic ally creative, given more help in knowing how to encourage it’ (Bruce, 2004, P.2) .Music is based around structure and pattern and although babies may not understand the words you are saying, they can recognise the emotion in the tone and sounds of the words. Music is an activity that stimulates both sides of a baby’s brain. It stimulates the creative side of the brain while at the same time stimulating the logical side of the brain. ‘Music stimulates areas of a child’s brain that other mental and physical activity will not, and it will make a lasting impression’ (Metzger, 2009).
It is more effective to sing to a baby than it is to talk. Rocking a baby while singing to them is very important; it helps to develop the inner ear and balance. Rocking is also a very relaxing and comfortable motion for a baby. ‘The earlier a child studies music, the more rhythmic integration, movement, and learning about proportions in time space perception, strengthens the young brain’ (Campbell, 2000). Introducing music to a baby helps them to become aware and develop their senses. It can also help development in areas such as movement, language, co-ordination, and listening skills. Music plays a huge part in the relationship between parent and child, can help to develop social interaction and can have a huge role in building a strong bond between parent and baby. Raymond Lap, the creator of ‘Lovely Baby’, a music program for babies and families, talks about how introducing music at a young age helps to give children a good start in life:
‘Music can transfer a musical language containing all kinds of emotional and educational messages, which can be understood unconsciously by all babies. By presenting your baby the right mix of styles, melody, harmony and rhythm, the brain is stimulated into creating more connections, providing your baby a head start in life in various ways’ (2002). A child would not be able to sing without first learning to listen; this is why it is important to introduce stimulating music at an early age. It is between the ages of 18 months to 3 years that a child can start learning to sing, although it is important to remember that all children are different and will therefore develop in different ways. It is vital to introduce good music to young children as this gives them more opportunities to explore their own voice and musical abilities. Raymond Lap describes what qualifies as good music for babies: Music Education in Regard to Children CM6002 Emily McGregor 1639305 ‘Good baby music is created with the right knowledge of how a baby interprets musical information and how it responds. It must have the right tempo, soft and tender orchestrations, and feature carefully composed melodies with the right use of rhythm’ (2002).Repetition plays a huge part in teaching young children. Repetition creates familiarity and familiarity helps children to feel comfortable. This is why it has been said that it is so important to play music to babies while in the womb as they will be able to remember that music after they are born. Every loving parent wants to give his or her child the best possible start in life. They have dreams and aspirations of what their child will grow up to achieve. This desire to give your child the best possible introduction into the world doesn’t just start from birth. Some parents choose to start to nurture and try to teach their unborn babies while still in the womb. One of the most affective ways of doing this is believed to be through music. ‘The auditory system starts to function at around the 24th week in some fetuses and after the 30th week in all of them’ (Tafuri, 2008, P. 10). New research now also suggests that they will remember the music that was played to them whilst in the womb. Dr Lamont writes:” It used to be assumed that it was really noisy in the womb but actually it's quite quiet" (2005). This evidence suggests that babies can pick up the sound of music coming from a stereo at a reasonable volume and it isn’t necessary to apply headphones directly to the baby bump. An experiment performed by Dr Alexandra Lamont, from Leicester University’s music research group, has found new evidence on how music in the womb can influence early child development. ‘Now we have discovered that babies can remember and prefer music that they heard before them were born over 12 months later’ (Lamont, 2001). This evidence shows just how important and influential the music played to a child while in the womb can be to a young child’s life and early development. During the experiment Dr Alexandra Lamont found one woman who talked about her experience of playing music to her baby while in the womb and how it then helped after the birth: "I used to have a daily bath and listen to Ella Fitzgerald at 6pm. It was my peace time. When she was born she was very fractious with colic. We used to play Ella Fitzgerald at 3am to try to settle her, and it really worked" (Unknown, Cited in Lamont, 2001). The early months of a baby’s life can be a challenging and stressful time for both the child and the parents. This woman’s experience proves that music can be used as a powerful tool to help young babies get through these vital stages in their early months of life. Interview (conducted by the writer) with Kathy Doolan Creator of Rhythm Time (UK Music Franchise for parents and babies): Music Education in Regard to Children CM6002 Emily McGregor 1639306 ‘Rhythm Time was designed to help children develop confidence, creativity, and coordination. It is also lots of fun and helps children to discover a love and understanding of music at an early age. There has been research that shows that taking part in pre-school music classes at a young age can help strengthen the neural pathways that develop language and memory. Music is an activity that helps to develop both the logical and creative sides of a baby’s brain. It is often the case that babies are able to sing before they can speak’ (2011).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                How music can benefit children with learning disabilities;
                                                                                                                                                                                   Music therapy is an important tool used to help children with learning disabilities. Music can have a huge impact on areas such as reading, reasoning ability, language development, feelings and response, communication, and motor control. Music therapy can help to capture the attention of children with learning disabilities in a way that many other mental and physical activities cannot. It can stimulate different parts of the brain and help children to become more in touch with their emotions. When working with children with special needs, the techniques that are used to teach children in mainstream schools may not be as effective. This doesn’t mean that children with special needs aren’t intelligent or cannot learn the same skills; it just means that the way in which they learn information is often different. Often children with learning disabilities take longer to become comfortable in new surroundings, and struggle to communicate their emotions, which can be very frustrating for them if they are not taught in the correct way and in the right environment. Many special needs children find it easier to communicate through music than they do through speech. Music therapy can be used as an effective way to teach children with learning disabilities in a way that is easy and clear for them to understand. There are various musical activities that can be used to help these children. Singing can be used to help language development and playing a variety of instruments or getting children to move to different kinds of music can help those with physical difficulties. In an article written on music therapy for children with learning disabilities, the writer, who is left unnamed, talks about the positive effects that singing can have on children with speech problems: ‘Singing may help in the improvement and
Maintenance of the pulmonary functioning and oral-motor skills. It also helps in improving rate of speech, breath-control, pronunciation and articulation skills. It also enhances feelings of self-worth, self- esteem and self-independence’ (admin, 2010). It is often the case that children who suffer from stammers and speech impediments are able to sing fluently although they have great difficulty when speaking. Many children and adults who stammer find it easier to talk if they use a sing-song style of talking. The rhythm and pace of using a sing-song technique makes it easier for speech to flow.
Music therapy can be extremely effective when working with autistic children, as they can be extremely sensitive to music. Some autistic children are able to sing, despite not being able to speak. In these cases, music therapy uses simple songs with repetitive phrases to help to develop a child’s language and speech. Some autistic children have a remarkable talent for music, for example, some have perfect pitch while others have an outstanding ability to play a musical instrument. Vocal exercises can also help with listening skills, breath control and articulation. ‘Music is a unique path to communication and learning for children with autism’ (King, 2004, P.5). In her book ‘Music Therapy Group work with Special Needs Children’, the fatty acids, and fortified food supplements provided during pregnancy and to the child from 6 to 24 months of age can have beneficial effects o early child development. Few data exist on the long-term effects of these interventions.
5) An integrated approach is likely to be most effective for promoting optimal child development, i.e., interventions that combine improved nutrition with other strategies such as enhancing the home environment and the quality of caregiver-child interaction Malnutrition (as evidenced by intrauterine growth retardation and linear growth retardation


Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, being a pianist she must have played a piano whilst she was pregnant which would have influenced his brain development in a certain way .

Alfred Einstein,  (born Dec. 30, 1880, Munich—died Feb. 13, 1952, El Cerrito, Calif., U.S.), eminent German-American musicologist and critic.
Einstein was born into a family of scholars (Albert Einstein was his cousin), and, as a young man, studied law for a year before completing his doctorate (1903) inmusicology and composition at the University of Munich. As the first editor (1918–33) of the Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft (“Journal of Musicology”), he held a position of considerable authority in his field. Einstein lived in Munich until 1927, where he was also the music critic of the Münchner Post. From 1927 to 1933 he was music critic for the Berliner Tageblatt. After the advent of the Nazi regime, he settled first in London and then near Florence. In 1939 he came to the United States, which became his permanent home, and taught music at Smith Collegeuntil his retirement in 1950. He also taught at Columbia University, Princeton, theUniversity of Michigan, and Yale. His writings include Geschichte der Musik (1917;A Short History of Music, 1936) and many valuable papers for the publications of the International Music Society and other learned editions; his articles for theMusical Quarterly are especially notable. A skilled editor, Einstein revised Riemann’s Musik Lexicon (1919–29) and Köchel’s catalogue of Mozart’s works (1937) and produced new editions of Mozart’s last 10 string quartets and a biography, Mozart, His Character, His Work (1945). His most significant work, however, is considered to be The Italian Madrigal, 3 vol. (1949), which was the first comprehensive study of this subject in any language.

Einstein on Creative Thinking: Music and the Intuitive Art of Scientific Imagination
Einstein explored time and space… in his musical hobbies.


The greatest scientists are artists as well," said Albert Einstein (Calaprice, 2000, 245). As one of the greatest physicists of all time and a fine amateur pianist and violinist, he ought to have known! So what did Einstein mean and what does it tell us about the nature of creative thinking and how we should stimulate it?
In our last post, we suggested that community singing might be a simple way to introduce creativity into one's life. In the post before that Einstein's musical hobbies served as an example of personal creativity providing the kind of recreation that enables professional innovation. And in an even earlier post on Einstein, we introduced the idea that creative thinking can be done with your body as well as your mind. In this essay, we want to link all these themes through Einstein's experience to suggest that the daily practice of music might actually stimulate not only everyday creativity, but genius-level creativity insight did not come from logic or mathematics. It came, as it does for For I as well.
 Einstein first described his intuitive thought processes at a physics conference in Kyoto in 1922, when he indicated that he used images to solve his problems and found words later (Pais, 1982). Einstein explicated this bold idea at length to one scholar of creativity in 1959, telling Max Wertheimer that he never thought in logical symbols or mathematical equations, but in images, feelings, and even musical architectures (Wertheimer, 1959, 213-228). Einstein's autobiographical notes reflect the same thought: "I have no doubt that our thinking goes on for the most part without the use of symbols, and, furthermore, largely unconsciously" (Schilpp, pp. 8-9). Elsewhere he wrote even more baldly that "[n]o scientist thinks in equations" (Infeld, 1941, 312).
In other interviews, he attributed his scientific insight and intuition mainly to music. "If I were not a physicist," he once said, "I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music.... I get most joy in life out of music" (Calaprice, 2000, 155). His son, Hans, amplified what Einstein meant by recounting that "[w]henever he felt that he had come to the end of the road or into a difficult situation in his work, he would take refuge in music , and that would usually resolve all his difficulties" (quoted in Clark, 1971, 106). After playing piano, his sister Maja said, he would get up saying, "There, now I've got it" (quoted in Sayen, 1985, 26). Something in the music would guide his thoughts in new and creative directions.
No historian of science seems to have taken these musical and intuitional comments of Einstein seriously, but we think there is something very important to be gleaned from his personal testimony. What did Einstein mean when he told Wertheimer that he often thought in terms of musical architectures? We can't know for certain at this far remove, and Wertheimer never asked, but the engineer-composer Robert Mueller investigated further.
 According to Mueller, Einstein's friend Alexander Mozskowski "says that Einstein recognized an unexplainable connection between music and his science, and notes that his [Einstein's] mentor Ernst Mach had indicated that music and the aural experience were the organ to describe space" (Mueller, 1967, 171). Music also embodies time. Could music have therefore provided Einstein with a connection between time and space through its combination of architectonic, or structural, nature combined with its spatial and temporal aspects? Mueller has conjectured that the physicist's "disposition to architectonic logics of abstraction was formulated by Einstein's early musical experiences, and even enlarged by a constant struggle for musical experiences which helped him build a rich mental perceptual fabric of space and time in which to perform his scientific theorizing" (Mueller, 1967, 171).
These speculations about music, space and time in Einstein's imaginative thinking certainly fit with something the physicist told the great pioneer of musical education, Shinichi Suzuki: "The theory of relativity occurred to me by intuition, and music is the driving force behind this intuition. My parents had me study the violin from the time I was six. My new discovery is the result of musical perception" (Suzuki, 1969, 90).They also fit with the manner in which Einstein expressed his greatest praise for a fellow scientist. Neils Bohr's work on the structure of the atom, Einstein said, was "the highest form of musicality in the realm of thought" (Schilpp, 1979).
Wow! Anyone looking for connections between music, mathematics, and physics? How about intuition and reason? Einstein shows us how it all connects. But what do our students typically get, especially in high school and college? They get math without music. They get science without images, feelings and intuition. They get knowledge without imagination. Not only does intuition go undeveloped, many math and science teachers do not give credit to answers (even though they may be correct) that are not explicated by detailed logic. What these teachers appear not to understand is that translating intuitive insights into words or mathematical symbols is a secondary process that can - and should be -- be taught just as explicitly as translating from one language and another.
So much for Einstein's admission that he often had a feeling he was right without being able to explain it. So much for experiencing space-time through music. So much for working out ideas in images and feelings and musical architectures for which there are no words or symbols. So much for sitting down at the piano and letting the music show the way.
No wonder so many of our students don't like math and science: what is there to imagine and feel? Where is the art in their learning?

A Genius Finds Inspiration in the Music of Another

Last year, the 100th anniversary of E=mc2 inspired an outburst of symposiums, concerts, essays and merchandise featuring Albert Einstein. This year, the same treatment is being given to another genius, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born on Jan. 27, 250 years ago.
Top, Alinari/Art Resource; Associated Press
HARMONY OF THE UNIVERSE Einstein, who learned to play the violin as a child and often turned to music in difficult times, was especially fond of the sonatas by Mozart.
Forum: Classical Music
There is more to the dovetailing of these anniversaries than one might think.
Einstein once said that while Beethoven created his music, Mozart's "was so pure that it seemed to have been ever-present in the universe, waiting to be discovered by the master." Einstein believed much the same of physics, that beyond observations and theory lay the music of the spheres — which, he wrote, revealed a "pre-established harmony" exhibiting stunning symmetries. The laws of nature, such as those of relativity theory, were waiting to be plucked out of the cosmos by someone with a sympathetic ear.
Thus it was less laborious calculation, but "pure thought" to which Einstein attributed his theories.
Einstein was fascinated by Mozart and sensed an affinity between their creative processes, as well as their histories.
As a boy Einstein did poorly in school. Music was an outlet for his emotions. At 5, he began violin lessons but soon found the drills so trying that he threw a chair at his teacher, who ran out of the house in tears. At 13, he discovered Mozart's sonatas.
From 1902 to 1909, Einstein was working
six days a week at a Swiss patent office and doing physics research — his "mischief" — in his spare time. But he was also nourished by The result was an almost mystical connection, said Hans Byland, a friend of Einstein's from high school. "When his violin began to sing," Mr. Byland told the biographer Carl Seelig, "the walls of the room seemed to recede — for the first time, Mozart in all his purity appeared before me, bathed in Hellenic beauty with its pure lines, roguishly playful, mightily sublime."music, particularly Mozart. It was at the core of his creative life.
And just as Mozart's antics shocked his contemporaries, Einstein pursued a notably Bohemian life in his youth. His studied indifference to dress and mane of dark hair, along with his love of music and philosophy, made him seem more poet than scientist.
He played the violin with passion and often performed at musical evenings. He enchanted audiences, particularly women, one of whom gushed that "he had the kind of male beauty that could cause havoc."
He also empathized with Mozart's ability to continue to compose magnificent music even in very difficult and impoverished conditions. In 1905, the year he discovered relativity, Einstein was living in a cramped apartment and dealing with a difficult marriage and money troubles.
That spring he wrote four papers that were destined to change the course of science and nations. His ideas on space and time grew in part from aesthetic discontent. It seemed to him that asymmetries in physics concealed essential beauties of nature; existing theories lacked the "architecture" and "inner unity" he found in the music of Bach and Mozart.
In his struggles with extremely complicated mathematics that led to the general theory of relativity of 1915, Einstein often turned for inspiration to the simple beauty of Mozart's music.
"Whenever he felt that he had come to the end of the road or into a difficult situation in his work, he would take refuge in music," recalled his older son, Hans Albert. "That would usually resolve all his difficulties."
In the end, Einstein felt that in his own field he had, like Mozart, succeeded in unraveling the complexity of the universe.
Scientists often describe general relativity as the most beautiful theory ever formulated. Einstein himself always emphasized the theory's beauty. "Hardly anyone who has truly understood it will be able to escape the charm of this theory," he once said.
The theory is essentially one man's view of how the universe ought to be. And amazingly, the universe turned out to be pretty much as Einstein imagined. Its daunting mathematics revealed spectacular and unexpected phenomena like black holes.
Though a Classical giant, Mozart helped lay groundwork for the Romantic with its less precise structures. Similarly, Einstein's theories of relativity completed the era of classical physics and paved the way for atomic physics and its ambiguities. Like Mozart's music, Einstein's work is a turning point.
After playing the Bartok, Mann turned to Einstein. "It would give us great joy," he said, "to make music with you." Einstein in 1952 no longer had a violin, but the musicians had taken an extra. Einstein chose Mozart's brooding Quintet in G minor.
"Dr. Einstein hardly referred to the notes on the musical score," Mr. Mann recalled, adding, "while his out-of-practice hands were fragile, his coordination, sense of pitch, and concentration were awesome."
He seemed to pluck Mozart's melodies out of the air.
Arthur I. Miller, professor of the history and philosophy of science at University College London, wrote "Empire of the Stars."

Albert Einstein quote about Music
If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music. ... I get most joy in life out of music.
~ Albert Einstein
Einstein Music Quotes
If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music. ... I get most joy in life out of music.
He who joyfully marches to music in rank and file has already earned my contempt. He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord would surely suffice.
Music is the art of thinking with sounds.
Music is the purest form of art... therefore true poets, they who are seers, seek to express the universe in terms of music... The singer has everything within him. The notes come out from his very life. They are not materials gathered from outside.
“If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician.
I often think in music.
I live my daydreams in music.
I see my life in terms of music.
 I get most joy in life out of music.”

~Albert Einstein~


“It occurred to me by intuition,
and music was the driving force behind that intuition.
My discovery was the result of musical perception.
My parents had me study the violin from the time I was six.
My new discovery is the result of musical perception.”

~Albert Einstein~

A table, a chair, a bowl of fruit and a violin;

what else does a man need to be happy?

~Albert Einstein~

From 1902 to 1909, Einstein was working six days a week at a Swiss patent office and doing physics research — his "mischief" — in his spare time. But he was also nourished by music, particularly Mozart. It was at the core of his creative life.
He also empathized with Mozart's ability to continue to compose magnificent music even in very difficult and impoverished conditions. In 1905, the year he discovered relativity, Einstein was living in a cramped apartment and dealing with a difficult marriage and money troubles.

Scientists often describe general relativity as the most beautiful theory ever formulated. Einstein himself always emphasized the theory's beauty. "Hardly anyone who has truly understood it will be able to escape the charm of this theory," he once said.

The theory is essentially one man's view of how the universe ought to be. And amazingly, the universe turned out to be pretty much as Einstein imagined. Its daunting mathematics revealed spectacular and unexpected phenomena like black holes.

Arthur I. Miller, professor of the history and philosophy of science at University College London, wrote "Empire of the Stars."

Music and Genius
He once confided that had he not been a scientist, he would have been a musician. Mostly favoring classical music, Einstein adored Mozart and worshiped Bach.

"Life without playing music is inconceivable for me," he said. He also said that he lives his daydreams in music, and "get most joy in life out of music." Our Einstein, with unclipped moustache and unkempt do, did actually performed in solo concerts!

Einstein, too stupid to learn
There's a little known fact about our great genius: Einstein did extremely poorly in school when he was young. So academically poor he was, that his grade school teachers asked his parents to take him out of school because he was "too stupid to learn"--our Einstein, too stupid to learn!

The teachers thought it would be easier for Einstein's parents to make him learn manual labor so he could survive in life.

Instead of heeding, Albert's parents bought him a violin (he actually started playing the violin at age six). Let us fast-forward to today's studies, on how music makes kids bright, for reference. An article in the Brain and Mind website sums it all up as:

The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activate the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an insrument or singing, causes the brain to be more capable of processing information.

Music helped bring out the real genius in our Einstein. Albert Einstein himself admitted that the reason he was so smart was because he played the violin. One friend, G.J. Withrow, confided that the way Einstein dealt with problems and equations was by improvising on the violin.

Get this interesting article by Brian Foster, an experimental particle physicist at the Department of Physics, Oxford University, UK, that we dug from the archives of the Johns Hopkins University website. It reveals that Einstein's second wife, Elsa, who confided that she first fell in love with Einstein because of the way he plays Mozart beautifully on the violin, said Einstein also plays the piano (his mom was a pianist).

"Music helps him when he is thinking about his theories. He goes to his study, comes back, strikes a few chords on the piano, jots something down, returns to his study."

It would also be interesting to note that there are relaxation music that would also do the exact opposite effect to the brain. Several studies conducted, revealed that certain music (esp. baroque classics) such as Bach's and Mozart's, helped students score better at tests, and relaxation sounds or silence make them score lower.

Today, students, professionals, artists, or practically anyone can make use of brain performance-enhancers like iMusic. Based on scientific research, iMusic is proven to train your brain, improve your focus, memory, IQ, and to help you lower your brain age.

Meet the 14 year old who's smarter than Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking
Paulius Zabotkiene has more brain power than legendary boffins like Hawking, Einstein and billionaire Bill Gates according to his Mensa test
Genius: Paulius Zabotkiene
A 14-year-old boy has scored an incredible 162 on an IQ test - higher than Stephen Hawking, Albert Einstein and Bill Gates - making him one of the cleverest people in the WORLD.
Brainbox Paulius Zabotka was entered into the Mensa brain test last month by his eager parents who were convinced their son was a mastermind.
But they were stunned when Paulius registered the staggering score which puts him in the “genius” bracket and in the top one per cent of intelligent people in Britain.
The brainy teenager achieved the highest score possible for under 18’s - two points higher than Einstein and Professor Hawking.
It means he has now been given the honour of being welcomed into Mensa - joining a network of the most brainiest people from across the globe.
IQ scores
EinsteinStephen HawkingNapoleanSigmund FreudPaulius ZabotkieneName020406080100120140160180IQ
Paulius, who is in Year 10 at Blessed Edward Oldcorne Catholic College, in Worcester, said: “ I was really surprised and really happy when I managed to achieve such a high score.
“I really wasn’t expecting it. I was really over the moon.
“I hope I can carry on working hard at school and go on to study electrical engineering at Cambridge University.
“I like academic subject such as maths and science but I’m really into music, films and computer gaming as well.”
© Newsteam / SWNS Group
Paulius Zabotkiene, 14, is pictured at his home in Worcester
Proud mum Egle, 38, said: “We saw they were doing Mensa tests in Birmingham and just thought Paulius should have a go.
“But we were amazed when he got the highest possible score.
“We always thought he was quite bright but we did not really think that would be the outcome.
“We were very pleased to say the least.
“We never thought he would get the score he did but it is fantastic. It’s a higher IQ than Stephen Hawking.”
Mensa say the average person scores around 100 and anything over 140 is considered to fall into the genius category.
Egle and her husband Viktoras, 37, said they first discovered the true extent of Paulius’ intelligence after they came to live in Worcester from Lithuania when he was five.
Egle, a data analyst, added: “After we came here from Lithuania he started school here in Year 1.
“The teachers said he was ahead of everybody. He became fluent in English within six months.
“He always had a good memory.
“At the age of eight, he was reading books and then would tell us all about dinosaurs, which professors discovered them, where, what university they were from.
“He was fascinated in everything.
“If he is interested in something, he will find out about it. He will just dig information out.
“He is actually very good at film.
“He likes to make and edit his own films and has a YouTube channel where he shares lots of the stuff he makes.
“He makes films about music, the top five musicians and top five films, and stuff about gaming.
He has started playing the guitar recently and is doing well at that too.
“Everything he does, he seems to be so good at.”

Mom of 14-year-old boy genius with higher IQ than Einstein reveals she was told he would struggle with even tying his own shoe laces when diagnosed autistic at two
•   Kristine Barnett was told when her son was two that he might never read or write
•   Now 14, Jacob Barnett is working on earning a PhD in quantum physics
•   His mom believes she helped by ignoring the experts and finding out what her son's 'spark' was

The mother of a 14-year-old boy who is already a Master's student and well on his way to earning a PhD in quantum physics, was once told her son would most likely struggle with basic everyday tasks such as tying his shoes laces.
Jacob Barnett was diagnosed with moderate to severe autism aged two, yet now has an IQ higher than Albert Einstein and has been tipped as a future Nobel Prize winner.
His mom, Kristine Barnett, has written a book – ‘The Spark: A Mother's Story of Nurturing Genius’ - about her experiences raising him and why she chose to ignore the experts when it came to treating her son's condition.
Kristine Barnett, has written a book about her experiences raising her son Jacob and why she chose to ignore the experts when it came to treating his condition
Kristine Barnett said felt ‘hopeless’ when she was first told about her son’s illness.
‘The perceived wisdom on autism was that we would be working on very basic skills for Jacob for the rest of his life,’ she told CTV’s Canada AM on Tuesday morning.

While the experts said her son needed to spend more time on special education, she chose to follow her son’s ‘spark'. Rather than focusing on what her child couldn’t do, Barnett said she decided to focus on something he enjoyed - the stars.
At night, she would take her son outside to listen to jazz and gaze at the sky.
Aged 14, Jacob Barnett is already a Master's student and is well on his way to earning a PhD in quantum physics
As her young son's passion for the stars grew she looked to feed his thirst for knowledge and took him to a lecture at an observatory.
Much to her surprise when the professor asked a question about the Red Planet, ‘his little