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Topics - Iyyaka

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1
Salam,

I would like to share with you an article in french that you can find here https://www.academia.edu/37827400/Pour_une_approche_historico-critique_impartiale_des_d%C3%A9buts_de_lislam
about Non-Muslim testimony of pilgrimage in the first century after 632.
A very good summary of modern researches.

An extract with google traduction (so not perfect - sorry) :
"
External historical testimonies on the Hajj pilgrimage:

-The chronicle of Khuzistan (around 660 CE)
The chronicler mentions the "Dome/cupola of Abraham (qwbth d-abrhm)" and notes that the Arabs affirm that Abraham "built this place of the" Dome/cupola" for the worship (SGDT) of God and for the offering of sacrifices."
 
He further adds that they (the Arabs) worship there in honor of Abraham the father and the chief (patriarch) of their people

- The testimony of Anastasius of Sinai (660-690 CE).
This text written in Greek is probably one of the most important testimonies overlooked by researchers, as stated by Dr. Sean Anthony, a contemporary Islamologist at the University of Ohio, Department of Near East Studies. The part that interests us in this writing is the story of a Christian prisoner who was taken captive by the hagarens (Muslims), in the place where those who keep us in slavery "have the stone and the object of their worship ”. Then the captive tells how "they sacrificed countless sheep and camels there."

-The testimony of Jacob of Edessa in his fourth letter to John the Stylite (died in 708 CE)
In a letter that Jacques of Edessa sent to John the Stylite, It evokes the orientation of the prayer of the Jews and the Muslims. This orientation is described as following roughly, the cardinal points, but with the intention, to aim at the respective sacred places:
"[...] Your question is futile ... because it is not to the south that the Jews pray, nor indeed the Muslims (Hagarenes). The Jews who live in Egypt, just like the Muslims, as I have seen with my own eyes and will now establish for you, prayed to the East, and still do, all of them - the Jews to Jerusalem and Muslims to the Kaaba. And the Jews who are south of Jerusalem pray north. And those of the land of Babel, in Hira and Basra, pray to the West, and the Muslims who are there (those of Babel) pray to the West, towards the Kaaba. And those who are south of the Kaaba pray north, towards this place. Thus, from what has been said, it is clear that it is not to the south that Jews and Muslims from Syria pray, but to Jerusalem or the Kaaba, the ancestral place of their people […] ".

- An Arabic papyrus (86-99 AH / 705-717 CE) from the Oriental Institute of Chicago (17653):
Papyrologist Petra Sipesteijs published it in an article entitled “An Early Umayyad PapyrusInvitation for the Hajj” where she described and analyzed a letter from Prince Umayyade Shal Ibn 'Abd al-Aziz which contains an invitation to a certain 'Uqbah Ibn Muslim to participate in the pilgrimage (al-Hajj).

- Arab graffiti dated 91H / 710 CE It is in the month of Dhul-Qia’da
that a certain Makhled Ibn Abi Makhlad wrote a prayer to implore the forgiveness of God and for his pilgrimage to be accepted.
The inscription is located near Tabuk in the north of Mecca.
"


2
Questions/Comments on the Quran / Quran - 3 figures of speech
« on: December 17, 2019, 02:21:46 PM »
Salam,

I would like to bounce back on Mazhar's answer here https://free-minds.org/forum/index.php?topic=9610873.20 from which here is an extract:
* Second is:
Qur’an is rendered facilitative for comprehension by use of figures of speech
"

Indeed, these figures of speech are important. I would like to share 3 with you in this post (almost no find in translations):

(1) Remove prepositions

1: 6 ahdna alSraT almstqym (from Quranix.com)
Transcript (English)
1: 6 Ihdina alssirata almustaqeema
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
1: 6 Guide us to the straight way;
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
1: 6 Guide us to the straight path.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
1: 6 Guide us the straight way.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
1: 6 Guide us in the right path:

As you can see there is no preposition between the words Ihdina and alssirata.
The above red translations put a preposition as if it were part of the sentence (Example -> "to", "in"), or like M. ASAD who put no preposition without explanations making comprehension difficult in English.
The word Ihdina normally accepts 4 prepositions: on, in, to, for.

So 3 possibilities:
a) Allah by this figure of speech indicates that this sentence contains the 4 possibilities (to express a lot with few words)
b) One of these 4 prepositions is implicit - Which one and why?
c) The word Ihdina must not be translated by "Guide us" but by "Offer us", expression which works well without preposition.

Open question ...but i give you my view : answer (a) because  :
-1- sura 2 evokes in the second verse the guidance in continuity with sura 1
-2- the form ih'dina is used in 38:22 and it clearly expresses the guidance first (and not the gift even if the meaning is implicit) and in 38:22 the word ih'dina is followed by the preposition ila and the word l-sirat wich is found in (1: 6)

(2) add / remove letters

2 examples:

2-1) Sura 18: the form tastaṭīʿa in (18:41) (18:67) (18:72) (18:75) (18:78) # tasṭiʿ in (18:82)
=> Translations are identical for these two forms but yet a formal difference exists between the two.
=> The difference is the extra "ta" in form 1 or without the "ta" in form 2
=> This addition of "ta" indicates an additional intensity, an effort in action.
Thus, before the explanations was given to moses provided by the servant of Allah the form indicates that Moses will only be persistent with great difficulty, which is no longer the case in 18:82.

2-2) Surah (97:4:1) - tanazzalu # (41:30) tatanazzalu
=> Thus, in (41:30) the angels deploy an effort to reassure the mortal faithful.

(3) Remove whole words

Example -> (2:184) "ayyaman/jours ma'dudatin/few
=> Incomplete sentence.
=> I let you complete and meditate on it.

3
Salam,

A question about the translation of verse 22:40 and the grammatical function of the word "fīhā": (Below Mazhar translation which corresponds to almost all translations)

لَّـهُدِّمَتْ صَوَٟمِعُ وَبِيَعٚ وَصَلَوَٟتٚ وَمَسَٟجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيـهَا ٱسمُ ٱللَّهِ كَثِيـرٙاۗ
Certainly monasteries and churches and synagogues and mosques would have been demolished where (fīhā?) the name of Allah is mentioned quite often.

   fī-hā = P - preposition + PRON - 3rd person feminine singular object pronoun

Can you explain to me what the feminine pronoun is referring to ?
If this refers to all these religious buildings then why the singular feminine and not the plural ?

Peace

4
Salam,

   "the so-called call of Allah to slaughter Ismael by Abraham" -

Let's understand one thing: Before any debate we must agree on definitions of important words that are used, otherwise the debate will prove to be fruitless and sterile.

These definitions will play the role of a mental filter that will guide our comprehension.

Concerning the Quran the most important definition is that of the “Basmala” * which inaugurates and introduces every reading of each sura; its presence in force in the Fatiha is enough to give it a PREMIUM place.
God invites us to have a reading "RHManique" of the Quran.
And once the concept of the root R-H-M is defined, the second rule will be to remove any contradiction in the understanding of the Quranic text in the light of this accepted definition.

Step 1: Definition of the “Basmala”

Thus, what does the “Basmala” means: Accompanied/With-the instrument-of the name-attribute-function of Allah, the all-radiant-of-benevolence-and-protection (His essence) **, the inexhaustible- source-of-benevolence-and-protection (His manifestation) ***.

Reminder of the general notion of benevolence: "Favorable disposition of someone, as synonymous with concepts of kindness and indulgence.
Reminder on the general concept of protection: "Action to protect, to defend some or all. (against an aggressor, a danger, etc.); being protected.”, as synonymous with concepts of help, defense and relief, to sponsor, to promote the development of something.”

Step 2: Management of Quranic "contradictions"

IF we agree on this definition of the “Basmala” - obviously the meaning of words is more important than the formal words used - then the following question arises:
May God, in a perverse way (a feint), ask Abraham to KILL his only SON, whom he had so much trouble having him and without never asking GOD, EVEN IF Ishmael did not kill no one nor spreading corruption on earth ?

IF you answer YES to this question then ask yourself the following question: In the Qur'an God did the same thing explicitly with another mortal Man (I do not speak of angels or divine missionaries as in the story of Moussa but any mortal men like us)?

Conclusion:

IF you answer YES to only one of these two questions AND you agree on the definition of the “Basmala”, THEN you find yourself in an act of contradiction and/or neurosis.

Otherwise, it should not be surprising that the favorite tool of Islamic extremists is slaughtering or speeches such as "You know kid you may one day be forced to kill your father or an innocent in the name of cause of God LIKE of what Abraham had to do for his son .. " imbued certain extremist circles ...

- - - - - - - - - - - -
* The Basmala (Arabic: بسملة basmalah), also known by its incipit Bismillāh (Arabic: باسم الله, "In the name of God") [1], is the Islamic phrase bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

** With regard to God, the substantive raḥmân has the function of expressing an extension and an elevation of the meaning given to the term raḥma. This is not a superlative: the more ..., but an intensive [1], it is better to use the adverb "all", which connotes the completeness, completeness, extreme, a register more qualitative rather than quantitative, unlike the adverb "very" used by many translations. Note that this term can be used as a proper name also.
      [1] Such is the status of the schema fa'lân; example ghaḍbân in S20.V8. Classically, it has been observed with reason that raḥîm could be a quality of the creatures whereas none of them can be adorned with the attribute ar-raḥmân.

*** Just like ar-raḥmân the name ar-raḥîm derives from the root raḥima. The fa‘îl schema on which it is constructed is that of adjectives of the active participle type, that is to say, qualitatively realizing the verbal action and ar-raḥîm thus designates the one who does something. Hence the fact that if one can not qualify a man as raḥmân, he can, however, be said to be raḥîm. This is so with the Prophet in S9V128.



5
Salam,

18:22 :
1- They will say: "Three, the fourth is their dog."
2- And they say: "Five, the sixth is their dog,"
3- conjecturing with the occult.
4- And they say: "Seven, and the eighth is their dog."
5- Say: "My Lord is fully aware of their number, none know them except for a few."
6- So do not argue regarding them except with proof, and do not seek information regarding them from anyone.

Here i share with you 3 remarks (others signs exist but it is not the subject here - i focus ONLY on THIS AYAT) that lead to think of the number 7 (eight if you include the dog).

(1)
The words of the sentence 1,2 and 4 are the same (I do not speak of conjugation but of words)  except that in sentence 3 it adds a "wa".

   18:22 :
   1- They will say: "Three, the fourth is their dog."
   2- And they say: "Five, the sixth is their dog,"
   3- conjecturing with the occult.
   4- And they say: "Seven, and the eighth is their dog."

=> Arabic language proof: in the Arabic language more we say things more that shows that it is strong, of importance (you put the emphasis on it). This version is therefore preferred.

(2)
Sentence 3 is quoted AFTER opinion 1 and 2 but BEFORE option 3 (sentence 4)

 18:22 :
   1- They will say: "Three, the fourth is their dog."
   2- And they say: "Five, the sixth is their dog,"
   3- conjecturing with the occult.
   -----------------------------------------------
   4- And they say: "Seven, and the eighth is their dog."

=> the conjecture therefore concerns opinion 1 and 2 and not opinion 3 (sentence 4). It is a clue that sentence 4 gives the right solution

(3)
Who is Allah addressed to?

18:22 :
   1- They will say: "Three, the fourth is their dog."
   2- And they say: "Five, the sixth is their dog,"
   3- conjecturing with the occult.
   -----------------------------------------------
   4- And they say: "Seven, and the eighth is their dog."
   5- Say: "My Lord is fully aware of their number, none know them except for a few."

=> Allah first uses the future then the present and then AGAIN present tense after the sentence 3.
Thus we are dealing with 2 groups: majority group that has the opinion 2 but they will change the story with opinion 1 AND the minority group ("Except for a few"). As for what is the identity of this minority group it requires more development.

Peace.

6
Questions/Comments on the Quran / RIBA from the Quran perspective
« on: June 27, 2019, 01:26:05 PM »
Salam Everyone,

Etymologically, the word ribâ is derived from the root rabâ whose primary meaning is to increase, to swell, to grow..

So, i personnally translate RIBA as "Overload" like an EXTRA which is not included in the original transaction.
RIBA, in the Quran, refers to a specific attitude : It is "ribâ al–jâhiliya" which means : "If the borrower could not repay the loan by the agreed due date, then the lender would postpone the repayment to another term but also DOUBLING the AMOUNT DUE." and so take advantage of a weak situation to increase his capital…

- - - - - - Proofs from al-quran - - - - - -

   (1) At the end of the ayat (30:39) appears these words from God (after the word RIBA) : "...these are the ones who will get the DOUBLE."
Also, in the ayat (30:38), the arabic word amwâl/Goods is a generic term for both currency and all forms of goods such as barley, dates, livestock, etc.

   (2) (3:130) "O rallied ! Do not consume Overload/Extra(-loan)/riba by DOUBLING/aḍ‘âfan REDOUBLED/muḍâ‘afa, and fear God so that you may prosper "

   (3) (74:6) "And (do) not confer favor (to) acquire more,"

Now, here is the good behavior from Quran perspective if someone can not pay on the due date :
   (2:280) " And if is the (debtor) in difficulty, then (1) POSTPONEMENT until ease. And if you (2)REMIT as CHARITY (it is) better for you, if you know".

Just a remark : just before this ayat the word "RIBA" appears 5 times ! (in ayats 2:275 to 2:278 - only 8 times in the entire Quran)

So, logically, the LONGER ayat from Al-Quran comes after these written passages to protect the debtor :
   (2:282) "O you who rallied when you contract with one another any DEBT FOR A TERM FIXED then write it…"

Peace .

7
Salam Everyone,

We will closely study an important letter that will allow us once again to "Tadabbour" and better understand the specific message of the Qur'an.
The [Ya] is both used as a consonant and as a vocalization in the extension of the sound ['i'].

First, the Ethymology {H,D} from the radical Hûdan means to guide.

Second, list the verses for the word Hûdan and the word Yahûd (translated by jews without distinction) :

- Hûdan : (2:62), (4:46), (4:160), (5:41), (5:44), (5:69), (6:146), (16:118), (22:17), (62:6), (2:111), (2:135) and (2:140)
- Yahûd : (2:113), (2:120), (3:67), (5:18), (5:51), (5:64), (5:82) and (9:30)

So now what is the difference ?
- Hûdan : Jews (general community) -> Those who has received the Guidance with a neutral or positive connotation
- Yahûd : Jews (some from the general community) -> with an exclusive NEGATIVE connotation.
They have the Guidance but they act in the opposite direction !

In conclusion, we have one of the functions (the function?) of this letter [Ya] is to reverse, to invert, opposite things

Other Examples :
- {B,S} = soft (like a bread) # [Y-B-S] = Hard
- {A,S} = Power # [Y-A-S] = power loss
- {T,M} = complete # [Y-T-M] = INcomplete (orphan)
- {R,Q} = lower, reduce # [R-Q-Y] = to raise..
etc..

Also, from the sound, we can remark that this letter allow to increase the sound ['i']#['iiii'] : Short # Long..Opposite.

Peace

8
Salam everyone,

The expression "to strike the necks" is often taken by the Traditionnal literalists as the open door, authorized by God, to massacre in the event of war and in particular to slice heads ... Let's see what it is when one makes linguistic "tadabbour/Meditating in-depth", under control of the Qur'an of course (the Ultimate Argument)

I discussed the role of isolated letters and the nominal meaning of the word "DaRaBa" here: https://free-minds.org/forum/index.php?topic=9610707.0

As a reminder, the root of the word "DaRaBa" refers to the idea of deploy (person / thing) actively to evolve a blocked / difficult situation "

Now let's analyze the word "RiQaB = neck":

               R Q B (ر ق ب)

Rā  : Repetition, continuity
 +
{QāF, } = Cover from above
=> General definition : Cover from above a thing /person/situation continuously

With as a complement :
 {, }     = Evolution, continuity
 {, QāF} = Lower, decrease, yoke etc.

This root refers to the notion of "neck" because the neck is the symbol of the control of the situation and its evolution.

So, we can propose a new translation close to the meaning expressed by God:
"Hitting the necks" means "Deploy actively to change this situation of conflict by controlling/overpowing them"


- - - Proofs from Literal Context - - -

(1)
(47:4)...until when you have subdued them,

(2)
ar-RiQaB : 2 others times in the Quran (with 47:4)
- (2:177) ...Freed those who are under control
- (9:60) : Only l-ṣadaqātu/charity-in-justice..those who are under control

- - - Proofs from History - - -

Raazias had to avoid as much as possible shedding blood (on both sides) and taking goods/people in a minimum of time


Peace

9
Salam,

(33:21) Indeed, in the messenger of God a good example has been set for you FOR he who seeks God and the Last Day and remembers constantly about God.

The word "example"/us'watun is frequently interpreted, and evoked in this sense in our collective imagination, as an order to imitate the messenger in his gestures, his facts and even in his way to get dressed (?).

We will treat this question from 3 angles by sticking to this verse as a reference :

-------------------
(1) Linguistics: the difference between "ASW/uswatun" and "QDW"
--------------------
ASW :
- The word AS invokes the notion of power as in mathematics 'X²'
- The word Youwassi = he encourages (he gives him the power to resist the disease)
#
QDW
- The word QD means tailor-made and the wa the association
- so Quoudwa = a model to follow

=> So Ouswa in (33:21) means A source of encouragement (a source of energy), a source of inspiration etc.

---------------------------
(2) Fine, Muhammad is a source of encouragement, inspiration. But in what task of my life?
---------------------------
The quran says (33:21) ... FOR he who seeks God and the Last Day and remembers constantly about God .
=> The quran brings us back to God (quoted twice here) as if to remind us that only him is worthy of being followed.

-------------------------------------------------------------
(3) Muhammed as "messenger of GOD"
--------------------------------------------------------------
- The passive participle or ism al-mf'ūl, schema on which is built this word, designates the one who undergoes the action. (PASSIVE - It is not his own words!).

- Then, the word "Rasûl" comes from the verbal root rasala: to bring a message, a letter, etc., so it is simple and correct to translate rasûl by messenger or messenger.

- Indeed, the Quran explains its role, as a Messenger, by reducing it to the mere fact of transmitting from GOD: "is a transmission/balâgh of God and His messages/risâlâti-hi…». (72:23).

Peace.

10
Salam,

Regarding the possible significance of the single letters called al-muqatta 'at, which occur at the beginning of some surahs of the Qur'an, there are various theories bearing :

- These letters symbolize the names and attributes of allah

- These letters symbolize certain events that will take place in the future of time

- These letters throw a Qur'anic challenge

- It's allah who has exclusive knowledge of the interpretation of these letters
etc ..

For me and i hope from the Quran perspective, these letters are the starting/primary material for the analysis of the Quranic language of the divine writing (Kitab)

   (1) The direct proof by Al-Quran (just 2 examples) :
      - (12:1) Alif Lam Ra, These (are the) Symbols/Signs (of) the Writing clarifing.
      - (10:1) Alif Lam Ra. These (are the) Symbols/Signs (of) the Writing the wise.

   (2) Indirect proof : 27/30 => 90% of the suras that begin with these isolated letters refer to the word Kitab or Quran
         in the first verses.

Each letter therefore contains a knowledge that combined with other letters form triliterate words as a rule.
How to find this knowledge contained in each letter?

The method is to create a form by letter by approaching them by their
- Pictographic and (First approach here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet)
- Phonetic meaning.


   - Example with the letter "Ba" (bā) ب
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pictographic meaning:
Home -> Protection, Hearth, Epicenter, Closed and Delimited Block, Blocked
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bet_(letter)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phonetic meanings:
Ba => "Ba" first sound pronounced by the baby after the "Ma"
Father representation, protection, tutoring

Bab => "Door" => Protection of the house but also representation of "bias" ...
                                                        Via, by, through, accompaniment, etc …

The 3 ideas come together and complement each other:
Protectorate <-> accompaniment <-> tutoring
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NB : To this we must add the study of proxemia - When words are organized into networks :
The letter Ba refers to the construction and destruction, protection, preservation, cockpit, covering, capacity, content, accompaniment, foundation, attachment to the ground, terrain, soil, accommodation, home, place, constituency, entourage, tutoring, federation, bias, path, path, path, issue, exit, escape etc.


So the goal now is to try to find the basic root word definition from which derived words are drawn according to the context of use.
ALL derivative meanings MUST to respect the basic root word definition. It permits also to better understand what Allah talks about.

   - Right now, here is an example with the multi-meaning of "waDRiBouhounna" (The triliteral root ḍād rā bā (ض ر ب))

                                                                              D R B - ض  ر ب

D ض : Deployment
R   ر : Repetition
B ب   : Block, blocked, stopping point

=> So, the basic root definition is : Actively deploy to unlock a blocked/deteriorated/problematic situation

Other proof by combining the letter in pairs like this :

DB                          + RB                                                 + DR

Block Deployment    + Evolution                                         + Constraint
(dabab = fog*)           (Rabb = responsible of Evolution)     ( ضَرَّ : to disadvantage, to damage, to injure, to contraint)
* Deployment of block water droplets

           => Proofs from quran :

(4:34) As for those females from whom you fear disloyalty,
                then you shall advise them and deserting them (from) the rest place (already move away from her - her private room!),
                and wa-uh'jurūhunna. (but) If they respond to you, then do not seek remedy/redress over them;
          God is Most High, Great.
          => God give us a definition by the negative : do something but if the cause has disappeared then (negative) don't do something.

(4:128) And if a woman fears from her husband disloyalty or disregard/turn away, then there is no sin for them to reconcile between themselves; and reconciliation is good.
=> Confirmation here by using the word "reconcile".

           => Sometimes this root word is translate by "to travel" like another root word "SFR (safarin in 2:185)" and we lose Something by translating it like that !

In fact Safarin means "expedition" (the word SAFARI is derived in french/English from this same root word) with a meaning of distance like Camel caravans seeking to trade (without any notion of problem).
and Darabtum in (4:101) means "emigrate" (to leave his place of origin following a banishment or persecution) or "travel" (But to face a danger/evil like war) as shown the basic root word definition.


Hope you can enjoy this study (sorry for the length of the text ! :))
Peace be upon you and Human Envoys of God.

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