[DISCLAIMER: THIS ARTICLE IS CONTROVERSIAL IN ITS FINDINGS AND ONLY REPRESENTS THE VIEWS OF THE AUTHOR. IT MAY NOT REPRESENT THE VIEWS OF OTHER FREE-MINDS MEMBERS. HOWEVER, IT HAS BEEN POSTED FOR ITS THOUGHT-PROVOKING CONTENT]

Preface: This article has been written with the intent of looking into humankind's history through the legacy of the Patriarch Abraham and some of the messengers that followed. The search for the actual Mohammed will take us to several locations in the Middle East, ending with conclusions that are quite different from today’s perceived history.


Picture of the Prophet Mohammed's Tomb located in Medina - Saudi Arabia

Over 1,400 years ago a new 'Scripture' was introduced to the World which re-confirmed man's covenant with God and re-introduced the laws of God that were similarly revealed to Abraham, Moses and Jesus.

This Scripture was known as the ‘Quran,’ and its recipient (an Arab speaker) was to spread the word to all regions - starting with his own.

“And this is a Scripture which We have sent down, blessed, authenticating what is present with him, and that you may warn the capital of the towns and those around it. And those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are dedicated to their contact-method.” (Qur'an 6:92)

This new Prophet was Mohammed (see Qur'an 48:29) , and in this article we will attempt to separate 'Myth' from 'Reality' and piece together the correct narration of where he lived, and where he preached, from the Scripture itself...

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Part I - History of Messengers.

The revelations in the Scripture serve to provide us with much information about communities of the past and about their lives without which we would be left fumbling for information.

“We relate to you the best stories through what We have inspired to you in this Quran; and before it you were of those who were unaware.” (Qur'an 12:3)

1. Noah.

The first history we are given in the Quran after our father Adam is the prophet Noah with the incident of the Great Flood. This was the time when all civilization on Earth was simply 'wiped-out' and man-kind had to start again.

“They denied him (Noah), so We saved him and those with him in the Ship, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations; they were a blind people.” (Qur'an 7:64)

Thus, the slate was wiped clean.

“So We saved him (Naoh) and the people on the ship, and We made it (the Ark) a sign for the worlds.” (Qur'an 29:15)

Although there is debate as to whether the flood was local or global, the implications of a global flood would place the history of Noah many millions of years back in Earth`s history (see link on Noah and the Great Flood).

2. 'Aad - People of Hud.

After Noah's community, the next nation that we hear about from the Scripture being established is that of ‘Aad (Hud is there messenger).

Hud tells his people:

“Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from amongst you to warn you? And recall that he made you successors after the people of Noah, and He increased you in status. So recall God’s grace, that you may succeed.”  (Qur'an 7:69)

“As for ‘Aad, they turned arrogant on Earth, without any right, and they said: “Who is mightier than us in strength?” Did they not see that God, who created them, was mightier than they in strength? And they were denying Our revelations.” (Qur'an 41:15)

This indicates to us that although other people may have been roaming the Earth, ’Aad was a power unto its own which earned them the status of a nation and earned them the right to be sent a messenger (only nations large enough to have capitals are sent messengers 28:60).

Ø Their Punishment:

“Consequently, We sent upon them violent wind, for a few miserable day, that We may let them taste the humiliating retribution in this life, and the retribution of the Hereafter is more humiliating; they can never win.” (Qur'an 41:16)

3. 'Thamud' - People of Saleh.

The next in the line of Nations are the people of 'Thamud'.

“And recall that He made you (Thamud) successors after ‘Aad, and He established you in the land so that you make palaces on its plains, and you carve homes in the mountains. So recall God’s grace, and do not roam the Earth as corrupters.” (Qur'an 7:74)

In the above verse, it is made clear to us that Thamud were taking their homes in the mountains and the flat of the Valley.

Ø Their Punishment:

“And ‘Aad and Thamud (were annihilated). Much was made apparent to you from their dwellings. The devil had adorned their works in their eyes, thus he diverted them from the path, even though they could see.” (Qur'an 29:38)

Recent evidence suggests that Thamud were located in the area of north west Syria where the remains of a giant camel have been found in accordance with the sign that the messenger Saleh brought to his people (see link on Saleh and Thamud).

4. Abraham.

Now that we have seen the development of nations after Noah, we will move on to the story of Abraham in which many developments take place.

Ø Abraham leaves the town he lived in due to his people idolatry;

“And he (Abraham) said: “You have taken idols besides God in order to preserve some friendship among you in this worldly life. But then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will disown one another, and curse one another. Your destiny is Hell, and you will have no victors.” (Qur'an 29:25)

Ø Abraham is shown the location of the 'Shrine/Sanctum';

“And We have appointed to Abraham the location of the Sanctum: “Do not set up anyone with Me, and purify My Sanctuary for those who will partake, and those who will enforce, and those who kneel and prostrate.” (Qur'an 22:26)

Ø The Sanctum is in a ‘blessed land’ also called 'Bakka';

“The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)

Ø Abraham with Ismail raise the foundations of the Sanctuary;

“And as Abraham raised the foundations for the Sanctum with Ishmael: “Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:127)

Ø The Sanctuary is declared for Pilgrimage;

“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the Sanctum, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)

Ø One of Abraham's progeny `Zuriya` resides in an area near the  Sanctuary:

“Our Lord, I have resided part of my progeny (Zuriya) in an uncultivated valley near your restricted Sanctum. My Lord, so that they may uphold the Salat. So let the hearts of the people incline towards them and give provisions to them of the fruits that they may give thanks.” (Qur'an 14:37)

There are two pieces of information from the events with Abraham that will become key to topic at hand:

  1. The Sanctum is located in a place called "Bakka";
  2. That Abraham helped one of his progeny (no name mentioned) reside in a valley near the vicinity of the Sanctum.

5. Lot.

Before moving on to Mohammed, it is important to bring one more character into the history, that of the messenger Lot.

Ø Lot emigrates with Abraham;

“Thus, Lot believed with him and said: “I am emigrating to my Lord. He is the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an  29:26)

Ø Lot is from Abraham's progeny;

"And such was Our argument that We gave Abraham over his people; We raise the degree of whom We please. Your Lord is Wise, Knowledgeable. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, both of whom We guided; and Noah We guided from before; and from his progeny `Zuriya` is David, and Solomon, and Job, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron. It is such that We reward the good doers. And Zachariah and John, and Jesus, and Elias; all were from the upright. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot; and each We have preferred over the worlds." (Qur'an 6:83-86)

This is the part that most Muslim scholars totally missed, although in Christian and Jewish scriptures there is recognition of a blood relation between Abraham and Lot (Lot is recognized as Abraham's nephew).

Ø Lot settles around a  community which turns wicked:

“And Lot, when he said to his people: ‘You commit a lewdness that no others in the world have done before! You sexually approach men, and you commit highway robbery, And you bring all vice to your society.’ But the only response from his people was to Say: “Bring us God's retribution, if you are being truthful!” (Qur'an 29:28-30)

Ø The town of Lot  is near/on an established path:

“And it (town of Lot) was on an established path. In that is a sign for the believers.” (Qur'an 15:76-77)

Ø The people of Lot rebel and are destroyed:

“He said: “Here are my daughters if it is your intention.” By your life, they are in their drunkenness, blundering. So the scream took them at sunrise. Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an 15:71-74)

“They said: “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?” (Qur'an 11:81)

Ø Lot's town is left partially standing as a 'Sign':

“And We left remains of it as a clear sign for a people who understand.” (Qur'an 29:35)

“And We have left in it a sign for those who fear the painful retribution.” (Qur'an 51:37)

Where Was Lot’s Town?

With regards to the location of the town of Lot (Sodom & Gomorrah), it is generally viewed that the area around the ‘Dead Sea’ in Jordan/Palestine is where the historic events took place (the Dead Sea until today retains the name of `Sea of Lot`).

Some of the clues we are given about the location of Lot include:

  1. The town of Lot was on an established path (15:76-77);
  2. Signs are left from the town for all to see (51:37, 29:35);

The key information from the points above that will help is the one about the ‘established path’. If we look at the current evidence of ancient highways/paths that used to intersect the region, then we find that there is indeed the ‘King’s Highway’ that dates back to before the time of Moses and is still in existence today.

“The King’s Highway crossed half the Fertile Crescent, from Egypt to Syria, spreading goods and culture throughout the Middle East. It has been a favored trail since before history was recorded and today is paved for the most part.”

Staying in the vicinity of the Dead Sea, and looking at the path of the King`s Highway, we find there are a number of ancient towns that are potential candidates for being the location of Lot (Petra, Zoara, Karak and Madaba).

Petra.

Out of the choice of ancient towns near the Dead Sea, it appears that Petra is the better choice based on its abundance of surviving archeological evidence in the form of the homes of the people who last lived there:

Petra also happens to be situated in a 'Valley' and, although it is in an area that lacks abundant water sources, its inhabitants constructed an  advanced hydraulic water system to bring water to the city.

Petra has only recently been attracting archeological excavations; however, excavations have only been done on less than 2% of the ancient city. According to some archeological research, Petra dates back to 3,500 BC:

"In Abraham’s time, Petra was known as Salah. It is located in the mountains of Seir, the land of the Edomites. Petra is the Greek name for Sela, or Selah, a city of ancient Edom. The Hebrew word sela means "lofty, craggy rock, fortress, stronghold, cliff."

The site of Petra seems to indicate the presence of multiple civilizations, the last of which were the Nabateans (Arabs) and the Romans (Byzantines) upto the 6th century A.D. when it was struck by a devastating earthquake in 551 A.D. and the city fell out of disuse.

Thus, in conclusion to this part of the research, it can be said with some confidence that the ancient city of Petra is indeed the location where the people of Lot resided with Lot being from the progeny of Abraham.

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Part II - Mohammed

Now that we have looked at the sequences and clues with regards to the previous messengers, it is time to move on to the seal of the prophets, Mohammed:

“And if Our revelations are recited to them, they Say: “We have listened, and if we wish, we could have said the same thing. This is nothing but tales of the ancients!” And they said: “Our god, if this is the truth (this Quran) from You, then send down upon us a rain of stones from the sky or bring on us a painful retribution.” But God was not to punish them while you (Mohammed) are with them, nor will God punish them while they continue to seek forgiveness. And why should God not punish them when they are turning others away from the Restricted Temple, and they were never its protectors! Its protectors are the righteous; but most of them do not know. And their Salat at the Sanctuary was nothing but noise and aversion. Taste the retribution for what you have rejected.” (Qur'an 8:31-35)

Here we have a number of conclusive points which need to be looked at:

Ø Revelations are newly being revealed through Mohammed (8:31);

Ø The Restricted Temple/Sanctum is at this location/place (8:34-35);

Ø Mohammed is living amongst these people (8:33);

Taking all the previous information into account, this would mean that Mohammed began his mission in Baca where Abraham originally with Ismail established God’s Restricted Temple/Sanctuary.

Now, according to the Sunnis and Shia, we are told that this location is Mecca (Arabia) where the great Kabaa (cube) is located and where millions of pilgrims have made their way for centuries to visit this shrine while performing the rituals/rites of pilgrimage.

However, we must pause here for a moment and ask some vital questions:

  1. Since the pilgrimage was first called to by Abraham and was known by the prophets who came after him (e.g. Moses making an oath – measured by the years of pilgrimage), then why are the so-called followers of Moses and Jesus (Jews & Nazarenes) unaware of the significance of Mecca or the need to visit the Temple there?
  2. If Mecca was the place where Abraham first raised the Shrine, then why do the Sunnis and Shia claim in their history that the prophet and his followers were facing Jerusalem in their daily Salat before switching to Mecca a few years later?
  3. If the Sunnis and Shia are fabricating the history of the Jerusalem qibla (focal point), then why is there physical evidence found in the form of a mosque with two qiblas located in Medina and dating back to the prophet’s time?
  4. What benefit do the Sunnis and Shia have in promoting (to this day) that Jerusalem was the 1st qibla?

The reason for the above questions and the obvious doubt that is being placed on Mecca’s authenticity is not due to any secret conspiracy or hidden agenda, but is due to the existence of evidence in the Scripture which has been totally ignored by the masses.

Ø Bakk`a is Jerusalem, not Mecca;

"The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds." (Qur'an 3:96)

The most obvious and important piece of information that is often overlooked is that God calls the place where His first Sanctuary is located is called "Bakk`a". Now, while Bakka and Mecca may rhyme, they are obviously not the same place as Bakka is still until today known as a name from Jerusalem, not Mecca.

"Blessed are they that dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; in whose heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; the rain also fills the pools. They go from strength to strength, every one of them in Zion appears before God. O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer: give ear, O God of Jacob. Selah. [Psalm 84:4-8]

The name `Baca` has been retained in ancient scriptures and is the given as the name of the area which is reached as pilgrims exited the valley of Rephaim from the south west that led to mount Zion in the heart of Jerusalem (Samuel 5:22-23).

In-fact, the name Baka is still retained for that very same area that approaches the heart of Jerusalem from the south west:

The area of the south west in a map of Jerusalem is still named "Baka" (click map to enlarge)

In realization of this significant fact, some defenders of Mecca have argued (without evidence) that Baca was the ancient name for Mecca - Arabia.

Now, this argument would be worth examining had it not been for the Quran discrediting such a claim by mentioning Mecca by name in a different verse as being a town which was hostile to the prophet and which stood in the way of the pilgrims as they attempted to reach the Restricted Temple (i.e. the Temple is not in Mecca, but rather beyond it, making it clear that Mecca and Baca have never been one in the same):

"And He is the One who withheld their hands against you, and your hands against them in the interior of Mecca, after He had made you victorious over them. God is Seer of what you do. They are the ones who rejected and barred you from the Restricted Temple, and barred your donations from reaching their destination. And there had been believing men and women whom you did not know, and you may have hurt them, and on whose account you would have committed a sin unknowingly. God will admit into His mercy whomever He wills. Had they become separated, We would then have punished those of them who rejected with a painful retribution." (Qur'an 48:24-25)

Ø More clues for Jerusalem;

“And call out to mankind with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure. So that they may witness benefits for themselves and recall God’s name in the appointed days over what He has provided for them of the animal livestock. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor.” (Qur'an 22:27-28)

Looking at the verse above which speaks of pilgrimage, it is noted that the location of the pilgrimage is clearly elevated hence people are coming to it ‘from every deep enclosure’. As already pointed out, Jerusalem is located well above sea level (averaging 2,700 ft), making it an ideal description for people which would be approaching it from the low lands.

Ø Location of the Temple (Dome of the Rock?);

Aerial view of the Dome of the Rock that is situated on the Temple Mount area

An architectural masterpiece, the Dome was built in 687 A.D. by AbdulMalik Bin Marwan in what is still a puzzle to historians as the Dome was not constructed like any mosque, but more like a ‘temple/shrine’:

What is so unique is that the Dome of the Rock was never built as a mosque and was never used for this purpose. The character of the building is not that of a typical mosque. No similar building can be found anywhere else in the Islamic world. It was not built facing Mecca but as an octagonal form corresponding to the points of the compass. The main entrance is from the south, not the south-east (the direction of Mecca) as in other mosques. The builders did not build a Michrab (showing the direction of Mecca) in the southern part of the building. Even today, when the Arabs pray on the Temple Mount they do not do it in this building. Only in 1947 did the Mufti Hajamim el Husseini, who made a covenant with Hitler agreeing to kill all the Jews in the land of Israel, decide to build a Michrab. He explained that the Jews were going to rebuild the Temple on the same location of the Dome of the Rock, the site of the First and Second Temples; in this way he believed he would be able to prevent it. However, this act never made the Dome into a mosque and the Moslems continued to pray in the El Aqsa mosque on the southern part of the Temple Mount. (source)

Some historians (such as Al-Yaqubi) have attributed this strange structure to the political situation at the time and the desire of Abdel Malik to retain the power base of Islam in having the pilgrimage located at Jerusalem rather than Mecca:

`Abd al-Malik prevented the people of Sham from the hajj and this is because Ibn al-Zubayr was taking the pledge of allegience from the pilgrims. When `Abd al-Malik had found out about this, he prevented them from setting out to Makkah. But the people protested and said: "Do you prevent us from doing the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah while it is a duty from Allah upon us ?" He said: "Here is Ibn Shihabuddin al-Zuhri narrating to you that the Messenger of Allah said: "The caravans should not be set out except for three mosques, the Sacred Mosque, my present Mosque and the Mosque of Jerusalem" [which] stands for the Sacred Mosque for you. And here is the Rock on [which] it is narrated that the Prophet set his foot before ascending to the heavens, it stands for the Ka`bah. Then he built a Dome on the Rock, suspended silk curtains on it and appointed servants for it. And told the people to revolve around it like they revolve around the Ka`bah and so it was during the rule of Bani Umayyah.[ Ahmad b. Abu Ya`qub Ibn Wadih al-Ya`qubi (Ed. M. T. Houtsma), Tarikh, 1883, Volume II, Leiden, p. 311.1]

Ø The Kaaba – Jerusalem;

“God has made the Kaaba to be the Restricted Sanctuary, to enforce for the people, and for the restricted month, and for the donations, and for regulation; that is so you know that God knows what is in heavens and what is in Earth, and that God is aware of all things.” (Qur'an 5:97)

We are told that the word ‘Kaaba’ means a ‘cube shape’ and that the site in Mecca has been constructed in accordance with this design requirement.

A photo of Mecca's Shrine (the Kaba) taken in 1950

However, the meaning of ‘cube’ associated to this word has no basis in the Scripture itself nor even to the Arabic language still in use today (the word for cube is mu’ka’ab, not kaaba or kaab).

The word ‘Kaab/Kaaba’ are associated in Arabic to any feature that is protruding, such as the bones to the side of the ankles as can be seen below:

“O you who believe, if you rise to attend the Salat, then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles (Kaabain); and if you have had intercourse, then you shall bathe. And if you are ill, or traveling, or you have excreted feces, or you have had sexual contact with the women, and you could not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and your hands with it. God does not want to make any hardship over you, but He wants to cleanse you and to complete His blessings upon you that you may be appreciative.” (Qur'an 5:6)

Thus, any construct, regardless of its shape can be called a ‘Kaaba’ as long as it stands out from the plain.

What we need to ask to be more detailed is: ‘are there any special features that are protruding at the site of the temple of Mecca or Jerusalem that would give it the description of being a Kaaba’

With regards to the temple of Mecca, we have no apparent evidence of any special structure, however, with regards to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, we have as the name indicates, a special feature that is the presence of a Rock Formation that protrudes from the earth as part of the original mount and upon which the Dome was built - making the Dome "Kaaba".

A photo of the Rock within the Dome

What is interesting to note regarding the stone is that it is attributed as the spot where Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son in fulfillment of the vision he had seen. This would technically make the stone the marker given the name by God of “Maqam Ibrahim” (place/location of Abraham) which we are told would be found within the Temple/Sanctum:

“The first Sanctum established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds. In it are clear signs: the place of Abraham (maqam Ibrahim). And whoever enters it will be secure. And God is owed from mankind to make Pilgrimage to the Sanctuary, whoever can make a path to it. And whoever rejects, then God has no need of the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96-97)

Please note the apparent discrepancy for the site of Mecca where the alleged “Maqam Ibrahim” has been placed outside the alleged sanctum/temple:

Photo of “Maqam Ibrahim” – Mecca Arabia

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Part III - Mohammed Emigrates.

This is where the Sunnis and Shia begin to agree with the narration taken from the Scripture. After preaching the message of God to his own community of Baca; and after finding much resistance and oppression...Mohammed Emigrates from his home after all attempts to establish a 'God Alone Community' are met with failure and defeat.

“And many a town was stronger than your own town, which drove you out. We destroyed them, and there was none who could help them.” (Qur'an 47:13)

Ø The Migration/Hijra:

“O prophet, We have made lawful for you the wives to whom you have already given their dowry, and the one who is committed to you by oath, as granted to you by God, and the daughters of your father's brothers, and the daughters of your father's sisters, and the daughters of your mother's brothers, and the daughters of your mother's sisters, of whom they have emigrated with you. Also, the believing woman who had decreed herself to the prophet, the prophet may marry her if he wishes, as a privilege given only to you and not to the believers. We have already decreed their rights in regard to their spouses and those who are still dependant. This is to spare you any hardship. God is Forgiver, Merciful.” (Qur'an 33:50)

“God has pardoned the prophet and the emigrants and the supporters that followed him in the darkest hour, even though the hearts of some of them nearly deviated, but then He pardoned them. He is towards them Compassionate, Merciful.” (Qur'an 9:117)

We can clearly read that Mohammed (and his followers/supporters & family members) all emigrated from their town of Baca to at least one or possibly two locations ...

Ø Yathrib:

One of these places where Mohammed emigrated was known as 'Yathrib':'

“And a group of them said: “O people of Yathrib, you cannot make a stand; therefore, retreat.” And a small party of them sought permission from the prophet, saying: “Our homes are exposed,” while they were not exposed. They just wanted to flee.” (Qur'an 33:13)

Jurisdiction of Rome around the period 600 A.D.

Looking at the map of Rome's jurisdiction at the time, it would make perfect sense that Mohammed would migrate south away from Rome's influence towards a place where they had no jurisdiction. It is therefore plausible that one of the places where the prophet migrated was the town known today as `Medina` in the area of north west Arabia where certain artifacts related to the prophet and his era seem to have been found.

Ø Beca/Jerusalem is still Mohammed's Focal Point.

“The first sanctuary established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)

Although Mohammed has been evicted, he is still upholding the focal point of the Temple in Jerusalem…This would explain why the Sunnis and Shia record until today that the prophet did indeed face Jerusalem for the first part of his stay in Medina (as evidenced by the mosque with two qiblas) and why they still call Jerusalem the ‘1st qibla’.

But the question still remains: ‘how was the qibla changed?’

Ø God Establishes a new Focal Point (Qibla):

“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)

Here is a clear 'turning' away from the existing focal point to newer one.

In-fact, this is where traditions and archeology meet with the Scripture as they relate that when the prophet came to Medina, he set the focal point towards the North East (in this case they claim Jerusalem), and that after a period of time he set it in the opposite direction.

What is an interesting point to note is that if we drew a straight line from Medina to Jerusalem (in-line with the original qibla as per the Scripture), and then we extend the same line completely in the opposite direction (in-line with the turning away from the qibla as per the Scripture), we see that the alleged temple of Mecca, contrary to what the Sunnis and Shia claimed,  does not come onto this path.

An imaginary line drawn from Medina to Jerusalem and opposite.

Ø Why Change to a New Focal Point?

Establishing a new 'Focal Point' (or Qibla) has precedence in the Quran and was done during the time of the Exodus when Moses and his companions were on the run from Pharaoh and needed to face towards the direction where their enemy would come from during their Salat.

“And We inspired to Moses and his brother: “Let your people leave their homes in Egypt, and let these homes be your focal point (Qibla) and uphold the contact-method. And give good news to the believers.” (Qur'an 10:87)

As for Mohammed's people...it was a 'test' of sorts:

“And as such, We have made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We did not make the focal point that you became on except to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. It was a great thing indeed except for those whom God had guided; God was not to waste your belief. God is Merciful and Compassionate over the people.” (Qur'an 2:143)

Ø The Medina/Yathrib Expansion:

During his time in Yathrib, Mohammed and his followers were forced into a number of conflicts which gave them governance over lands/areas they had previously not been involved with.

“And He inherited you their land, their homes, their money, and lands you had never stepped on. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 33:27)

“And recall when you were but a few who were weak in the land, you were fearful that men might capture you. But He sheltered you, and He supported you with His victory, and He provided you with good provisions, so that you may be thankful.” (Qur'an 8:26)

Ø Financial Growth & Development:

“You should know: “Of anything you gain, that one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer.” You will do this if you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the day of the Criterion, the day the two armies clashed. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 8:41)

Ø Military Strategy & Experience:

It was during this ‘Yathrib Campaign' that it would seem most of the warfare' verses were revealed (4:77, 47:20, 2:217).

“And prepare for them all that you can of might, and from the steeds of war, that you may instil fear with it towards God’s enemy and your enemy, and others beside them whom you do not know but God knows them. And whatever you spend in the cause of God will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged.” (Qur'an 8:60)

Ø Rome was to be fought!

This was a prediction of the inevitable battle against an organized and well trained army...The results as we shall see were quite disastrous.

“Say to those Nomads who lagged behind: “You will be called on to fight a people who are very powerful in warfare, unless they surrender. Then if you obey, God will grant  you a good reward, but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful retribution.” (Qur'an 48:16)

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Part IV – Baca/Jerusalem is liberated

Ø Roman Victory, Muslim Loss;

“The Romans have won*, at the lowest point** on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)

* Most translation have made a mistake in the vowels of 30:2-4 thinking (or making us think) that Rome was 'Defeated' then 'Won'.  They claim that the reason the Muslims ‘rejoiced’ during the victory of Rome was because it was a war between Rome and Persia, and the Muslims rejoiced that Rome had won since Rome was a Christian nation and thus closer to their beliefs. If we put this nonsense explanation aside and simply reverse the vowel markings, then we can see that the proper context becomes Rome ‘winning’ and then ‘losing’ at which point the Muslims rejoice.

**Note that the 'lowest part of the earth' is a dead giveaway that the battle was fought near the Dead Sea as it is the lowest body   of water  on Earth, lying 408 meters  (1,340 feet)  below  sea level.

The battle where Rome defeated the Muslims could be the archeologically supported battle of 'Mutah' of 632 A.D. In this first major battle between the Muslims and Rome, the Muslim army was decimated with a retreat called to save as many lives as possible. The battle has been  reported as follows:

“One hundred thousand Roman soldiers, sent by the Roman king were armed to teeth with war equipment. They were also skilled at various war methodologies. They formulated contingents of six thousand soldiers, each called a "Legion". The Legion was divided into thirty groups, each of which was called "Manipool". Each Manipool consisted of two hundred soldiers. This was further subdivided into two groups each with one hundred soldiers and was called "Century". All the Roman soldiers wore steel helmets and armour. Their shields were large and their spears and swords extraordinarily long. They were also familiar with the formation of flanks.

The commander of the Islamic army, Zayd bin Harith zealously said, "We have come to fight in the way of Allah, if we kill the enemy for victory, Paradise is our reward. The same is ours if we die and are defeated. Only those fear the enemy numbers who lack Faith in the hereafter. Why should we be afraid of the numbers of the enemy?" These words of Zayd bin Harith induced rejuvenation among the Muslims and they became prepared for the battle. " (http://www.usf.edu.pk/wyw-35.html)

Mut'ah is located just south of Karak, near the Dead Sea

The results of the battle of Mut’ah (according to history) were disastrous for the Muslim army. Zeid and a large number of his comrades were killed, while the leadership of the army fell by default to Khalid Bin Al-Waleed who, in the face of defeat, called for an immediate retreat of all remaining fighters/soldiers. The remains of some of the most prominent figures who took part in the battle of Mut’ah are still found at that location:

"The most important companions of the Prophet buried in Jordan include: Zeid ibn al-Haritha; Ja’far bin Abi Talib (cousin of the Prophet and elder brother of Ali, who was the husband of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima and the father of al-Hassan and al-Hussein); Abu ‘Ubaydah ‘Amer Ibn al-Jarrah (one of the "Blessed Ten" companions promised Paradise); Mu’ath bin Jabal (the Prophet’s governor in Yemen); Shurhabil bin Husna (the Scribe of the Qur’anic Revelation), and Dirar bin al-Azwar (a great general). In fact, many more companions of the Prophet are buried in Jordan." (http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/tourism7.html)

Above is the tomb of *Zeid as well as other reported companions of the prophet buried at Mutah.

*It should be mentioned that 'Zeid' (the prophet's adopted son) is one of the few people mentioned by name in the Scripture (33:37)

Victory against Rome.

After a few years from the initial battle and defeat of the Muslims, a new battle was to be fought in which the Muslims would be granted victory by the grace of God...

Ø Roman Loss,  Muslim Victory;.

“The Romans have won, at the lowest point on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)

In fulfillment of God’s promise, and in confirming the truth of the prophecy, the Muslim army once again set out to battle mighty Rome. This event fits the description of either the historic 'Battle of Tabuk' that has been reported as the Prophet Mohammed's final military campaign before his death, or the 'Battle of Yarmouk' which occured immediately after the death of Mohammed and where Rome was openly defeated and Jerusalem liberated.

Tabuk is in northwest quarter of Arabia, near the border of today’s Jordan

However, before the battle against Rome, there was one small matter that needed to be dealt with...

Back to Lot.

Looking at the map of the area between Medina and Jerusalem, it becomes evident that the town of Petra is situated along the way to the north of Medina.

The town of Lot appears for all purposes to have been the historic `Mecca` which is mentioned in the Quran as being a source of threat and an obstacle to the prophet and his companions making their way to the Restricted Temple of Jerusalem:

"And He is the One who withheld their hands against you, and your hands against them in the interior of Mecca, after He had made you victorious over them. God is Seer of what you do. They are the ones who rejected and barred you from the Restricted Temple, and barred your donations from reaching their destination. And there had been believing men and women whom you did not know, and you may have hurt them, and on whose account you would have committed a sin unknowingly. God will admit into His mercy whomever He wills. Had they become separated, We would then have punished those of them who rejected with a painful retribution." (Qur'an 48:24-25)

From reading the military objectives and the Scripture, it appears that the final victory against Rome and the retaking of Jerusalem was dependant on capturing the town of Petra/Mecca, and if so, then this explains why the prophet and his companions are spoken of as being physically in or around the town where Lot had lived:

"And Lot was one of the messengers. When We saved him and all his family. Except an old woman who remained. Then, We destroyed the rest. And you pass by their ruins in the morning; And in the night. Do you not understand?" (Qur'an 37:133-138)

The only way to pass by the ruins of a people during the day and the night is if you were living in the very same place or extremely nearby...This evidence confirms that the prophet and his companions, during the revelation of the above verses, were indeed located at the ancient town of Lot - Petra/Mecca.

Rome Defeated.

After the capture of Mecca/Petra, the army, with Mohammed at its head, found a complete collapse of Roman fighting spirit and will:

"Muhammad had been giving to Byzantium a good portion of his thought and careful planning. He was convinced that Muslim power at the northern frontier with al Sham should be firmly established if those who had been evacuated from the Peninsula and who had emigrated to Palestine were not to return and attack again. It was in consequence of this care that Muhammad mobilized a very massive army when he heard that the Byzantines were about to advance on the northern frontier, and he himself led that army all the way to Tabuk. The Byzantines had withdrawn toward the interior upon hearing of the march of that army." (click here for source).

Ø The Restricted Temple is finally  liberated:

After what seems like an impossibility...Mohammed is finally home...The Temple at Baca/Jerusalem is liberated:

“God has fulfilled with truth His messenger's vision: “You will enter the Restricted Temple, God willing, secure*, with your heads shaven and shortened, having no fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He has coupled with this a near victory.” (Qur'an 48:27)

* Please note that 'secure' could be understood as the prophecy that there would be no resistance, and that Rome would capitulate and give-up the land of God’s Temple.

The son/prophet of Baca has now returned to his homeland, and has finally been able to defeat those that fought to suppress and oppress him and his people...

The Original Qibla Re-established.

Ø The Focal Point (Qibla) is Shifted Back to Baca/Jerusalem.

It can be hypothesized that the change in qibla away from Jerusalem was one of the largest single contributors to the situation we see today where Muslims do not follow God’s system. This hypothesis would make the most sense especially of the re-shifting of the qibla back to Jerusalem did not take place until close to the end of the prophet’s life, soon after or during his liberation of Baca/Jerusalem:

“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)

“And as such, We have made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We did not make the focal point that you became on except to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. It was a great thing indeed except for those whom God had guided; God was not to waste your belief. God is Merciful and Compassionate over the people.” (Qur'an 2:143)

“We see the shifting of thy face towards the sky; We will thus set for you a focal point that will be pleasing to you: “You shall set yourself towards the Restricted Temple; and wherever you may be, you shall all set yourselves towards it.” Those who have been given the Scripture know it is the truth from their Lord. And God is not unaware of what you do.” (Qur'an 2:144)

“And wherever you go out, you shall set yourself towards the Restricted Temple. And wherever you may be you shall set yourselves towards it; that the people will have no room for debate with you, except those of them who are wicked. You shall not fear them, but fear Me; so that I may complete My blessings upon you and that you may be guided.” (Qur'an 2:150)

The Muslims today are confused to the above verses in thinking that the shift towards the ‘Restricted Temple’ was God’s command for Mohammed when he shifted away from Jerusalem (and they assume towards the shrine of Mecca). The problem with this understanding is that in 2:142 the “change” had already taken place and the people were commenting about it (i.e. 'what made them change from their Qibla?'). While in 2:144 the Prophet is given “new” instructions to use the focal point of the “Restricted Temple” (which cannot be Mecca because the first change of Qibla that was meant to be a “test” has already happened and thus the people were all facing the focal point opposite Jerusalem).

Ø The prophet foretold in the 'Scriptures' has finally come to pass:

“And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel, I am God's messenger to you, authenticating what is present with me of the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be ‘most acclaimed.’ But when he showed them the clear proofs, they said: ‘This is clearly magic’” (Qur'an 61:6)

Ø And the prayer of Abraham has been answered...

“Our Lord, and send amongst them a messenger from among themselves, that he may recite to them Your revelations and teach them the Scripture and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an 2:129)

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Part V – Mecca Arabia

Ø What of Today's Mecca?

Today's Mecca - Arabia, seems to have been an insignificant town at the time of the prophet. This city was not on any significant trade-route at the time nor does its name even have mention in any historical manuscripts which covered the area.

Mecca appears to have been a pagan center where the religion of the Nabataens (worship of Allat, Uzzah, and Manaat) flourished like other Nabataen towns. The Kaba (cube) which was used as the center of pagan rituals, is an emulation of the Kaba of Abraham which the Nabataens may have certainly come to know through the call of Abraham to the pilgrimage many centuries ago.

Points that are worth reflecting when studying the subject of Mecca - Arabia include:

1. The mosque in Medina with 2 qiblas did not correctly point to Mecca - Arabia.

The physical evidence which shows that the turning of the qibla away from Jerusalem was simply in the ‘opposite’ direction and not towards Mecca has been conveniently destroyed by the Saudis and a new mosque has been rebuilt with two qiblas, but with the second `new` qibla now aligned towards Mecca.

The Mosque in Medina with the two focal points (Qiblas) seen above has been re-built by the Saudi Royal Family during the last 30 or so years.

2. A number of mosques built in the early days after the prophet’s death have their qiblas aligned away from Mecca and further north, closer to Jerusalem.

"According to archaeological research carried out by Creswell and Fehervari on ancient mosques in the Middle East, two floor-plans from two Umayyad mosques in Iraq, one built at the beginning of the 8th century by the governor Hajjaj in Wasit (noted by Creswell as, "the oldest mosque in Islam of which remains have come down to us" - Creswell 1989:41), and the other attributed to roughly the same period near Baghdad, have Qiblas (the direction which these mosques are facing) which do not face Mecca, but are oriented too far north (Creswell 1969:137ff & 1989:40; Fehervari 1961:89; Crone-Cook 1977:23,173). The Wasit mosque is off by 33 degrees, and the Baghdad mosque is off by 30 degrees (Creswell 1969:137ff; Fehervari 1961:89)."  

3. The location of the Kaaba in Mecca at the floor of a valley (where it is prone to flash floods) is more in-line with pagan rites than those of offering people sanctuary and safety at God’s Temple.

“The Ka’bah is situated in a wadi between two low hills, Marwah and Safa and was thus frequently exposed to flash floods caused by upper Meccan rainwater which ran down into the wadi and was channeled towards the Ka’bah. It is on the face of it, strange to find a religious center built in such a dangerous position, but it is precisely in such a position – low on the slopes of a wadi subject to flash floods – that cult centers were situated in the Negev.” (The Origins of the Muslim Descriptions of the Jahili Meccan Sanctuary; Yehuda D. Nevo, Judith Koren, Jan. 1990)

4. The rituals associated with Mecca until today are all indicative of the pagan rites known and recorded for the region at the time.

   

Pagan elements associated with the Kaba in Mecca.

“The precise alignment of the Black Stone with the winter sunrise is not coincidental. Allat, the main idol of the prophet's people, was a fertility goddess and this is confirmed by archeological evidence from Nabataean sites. As typical of such fertility goddesses their symbols and rituals are related to the sun. In this case, the direction of the winter sunrise marks the location where the sun is "reborn". Now if you take a closer look, you will see that the enclosure of the Black Stone is in the shape of a dilated female vulva and the Black Stone is in the shape of the crown of the head of the newborn baby deity as it is coming out of the vulva.

Come closer yet and you will see that people are kissing the head of the newborn baby deity. Kissing the head is an ancient Arab tradition for asking for forgiveness. So kissing the top of the head of the newborn idol as traditionally done to ask for forgiveness, results in the pagan's sins being wiped out as if he or she was a newborn.

Hang around for a while and you will observe that people spin seven times around the Black Stone. A pre-quranic manuscript written by Epiphanius in the fourth century CE describes the ritual of spinning seven times as part of the birth festivals of the Nabataean idols Allat and Dhushara around the winter solstice. The number seven was considered sacred in Arab and pagan symbolism in general because of the five sacred planets plus the sun and the moon that the ancients venerated. To this day many people in the Arab world celebrate what is termed in Arabic Subu', which is a traditional festival that takes place on the seventh day after the birth of a newborn and on the seventh day after a pilgrims' return. Like the pagan pilgrimage that we observed and Epiphanius described, as part of the Subu' birth celebrations, people traditionally go around the house seven times while carrying the newborn baby. (http://free-minds.org//ayman)

Ø What of the Safa & Marwa and other sites at Mecca?

“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the Sanctuary, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)

The entire story of ‘Abraham marrying his slave girl Hajar and then leaving her in the wilderness with Ismail based on the wishes of his wife Sarah’ not only has no basis whatsoever in the Book of God, but also conflict greatly with the character of a Prophet who is devoted to God and who would never be pressured by any human into abandoning or harming another person(s). As far as we can ascertain, Abraham was married to one woman, the same woman who gave him Ismail and then, many years later, Isaac. We can also ascertain that Abraham lived near the area of the Temple (Jerusalem)  and therefore would not have traveled many thousands of kilometers to carry out such an act of inhumanity.

With regards to Jerusalem, if we are looking for two rock outcroppings, then they are easily located. The rock that resides inside the” Dome of the Rock” as well as the rock that resides under the “Dome of Tablets” are both located on the Temple area and appear to be of significance to the site.  

 

Images of the Rock outcropping in the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of Tablets

Ø What of the ‘People of the Elephant’

“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with fiery projectiles. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-5)

The Mecca propagandists have attributed he above verses to their religious town claiming that God, before the birth of Mohammed, sent birds to destroy the elephant army of Abraha, who had journeyed all the way from Africa (Habasha) to destroy the temple at Mecca since it was competing with his call for an organized religion.

However, upon closer examination of the verses, it appear that the people who are being referred to as ‘people of the elephant’ are none other than the people of Lot who were identified in the Scripture as being destroyed by ‘fiery projectiles’:

“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with fiery projectiles. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-5)

“They said: ‘O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?’ So when Our command came, We turned it upside down, and We rained on it with hardened fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an11:81-82)

 “Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an 15:74)

Such understanding perfectly matches the view that the city of Lot was the original `Mecca` mentioned in the Quran as being defiant to the prophet and his campaign.

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Part VI - Questions/Misc.

Ø       Baca/Jerusalem - How Was it Forgotten?

One of the most alarming points raised in this article is how the city of Jerusalem and home to Abraham and Mohammed and many prophets in-between lost its significance and became of secondary importance for the people who claimed to be followers of the last prophet!

There are three main reasons that may be viewed as being factors in this historic confusion:

1.        The change in the Qibla;

“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)

2.        God’s decree that allows interference with the delivery of His Message;

“We have permitted the enemies of every prophet, human and Jinn devils, to inspire in each other with fancy words in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. You shall disregard them and their fabrications. That is so the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter will listen to it, and they will accept it, and they will take of it what they will.” (Qur'an 6:112-113)

3.        God’s pledge revealed in the final Scripture to keep His Temple ‘off-limits’ to idolaters;

“O you who believe, those who have set up partners are impure, so let them not approach the Restricted Temple after this calendar year of theirs; and if you fear poverty, then God will enrich you from His blessings if He wills. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.” (Qur'an 9:28)

Ø       Previous Structures Preceding the Dome of the Rock;

Since the location of God’s Temple is deemed to be that where the current Dome of the Rock stands, then it should stand that the structure (or its foundation) must have existed on this site since the time of Abraham?

Research shows that indeed the Dome of the Rock has ancient foundations carrying the same octagonal shape as seen in the infra-red photo below.  

Infra-red image showing ancient foundation for the Dome of the Rock.

It should be noted that all sites were centered around the outcropping rock, also known as the ‘holy of holies’ in Jewish tradition.

Misc.

Ø       The History of the Arabs;

During the course of this research, a number of interesting facts came to light which, when viewed with the information revealed in the Scripture, gave us a more detailed knowledge of our ancient past.

§         Arabic language originated with the Nabataen’s – who’s kingdom was the area of today’s Jordan and stretched to include Jerusalem and parts of Arabia. This information is relevant as the Scripture was revealed in an Arabic tongue.

“We have sent it down an Arabic compilation, perhaps you will comprehend.” (Qur'an 12:2)

In addition, The Aramaic-speaking Nabataeans created a new writing form to add to those in use in the Middle East of their day. They developed a running "cursive" or semi-ligatured script, which was used for both lapidary inscriptions and more common graffiti. This writing form would later evolve into the "Arabic" writing still in use today. (source)

§         Nabataen’s were dedicating worship to female god’s named ‘Allat, Uzzah, and Manaat’ in addition to the main deity Allah.

     

Allat (found at the temple of the winged lions) & Uzzah (found carved at the treasury) (see link)

“Have you considered Allaat and Al-`Uzzah? And Manaat, the third one?” (Qur'an 53:19-20)

 “The Temple is the most important Nabataean temple discovered up to the present time. Seen by the excavator as dedicated to the goddess 'Allat, one of the three major pre-Islamic female deities, the Temple is really a complex of related facilities, including a worship center, residential quarters, and workshops, a combination never before seen in Nabataean religious installations.”

(http://todacosa.com/petra/aep /temple-winged-lions.htm).

In-fact, other historians who have studied the 'Nabataeans' have concluded that they worshipped a 'Triple' female god-head (The chief Nabatean goddess was al-Uzza, who reigned with her sisters Allat and Manat).

Ø       Israel and the Temple (Jerusalem);

“And We decreed to the Children of Israel in the Scripture, that you will make corruption twice on Earth, and that you will become very high and mighty.” (Qur'an 17:4)

A prophecy has existed in the Scripture that did not begin to materialize until this last century...The Children of Israel were destined to regroup and gain strength and influence in the world (as began in 1948).

However, this prophecy is very bad news for the Children of Israel as it will conclude with their humiliation and complete defeat at the hands of a people who will retake God’s Temple.

“If you (Children of Israel) do good, then it will be good for you, and if you do bad, then so be it. But when the promise of the second time comes, they will make your faces filled with sorrow and they will enter the Temple as they did the first time, and they will strike down all that was raised up.” (Qur'an 17:7)

Which Temple is being referred to here?

The Zionists have taken physical control of Jerusalem and its Temple since 1967 and are working continually to make it their capital. Unless the Zionists plan to physically move on Mecca – Arabia, then it is safe to pronounce that this Jerusalem Temple is the one that will be liberated as its was the first time during the prophet’s mission:

“God has fulfilled with truth His messenger's vision: “You will enter the Restricted Temple, God willing, secure, with your heads shaven and shortened, having no fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He has coupled with this a near victory.” (Qur'an 48:27)

Questions to be Asked.

If, as a Muslim, you totally reject the above article as being preposterous or made-up, regardless of the physical evidence that has been presented, then please ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Why did the early Muslims according to the evidence conduct the Salat facing Jerusalem (1st Qibla) if Mecca was the location for God’s Temple?
  2. Why is there a clear contradiction in the Sunni/Shia traditions whereby they claim that Mohammed only faced Jerusalem for about 18 months after arriving to Medina (i.e. until 624 A.D. which corresponds to his 2nd year of the Hijra), yet they neglect to mention that Jerusalem was also his qibla for the 12 previous years since he apparently declared his messengership in 610 A.D?
  3. Why does Islamic tradition hold that the Prophet journeyed to Jerusalem before his ascension to heaven during the ‘night journey’?
  4. Since you believe that Abraham (and Ismail) raised the foundations of the Kaaba in Mecca, then why do the faiths after Abraham (Jewish & Christian) not acknowledge that Abraham traveled as far south as Mecca or that their pilgrimage was to that area?
  5. Why does God speak of “figs & olives” in association with the Temple (see 95:1) while figs and olives are native to the Mediterranean area (Jerusalem), but not to the region of Mecca Arabia?
  6. Do you accept the physical evidence that the Arabic language as revealed in the Scripture is a product of the Nabataens who were dominant in the Jordan/Palestine area?
  7. Can you find Mecca - Arabia as being on any ancient trade map, or recorded as a center for pilgrimage or major religious activity before the 7th century A.D?
  8. Do you believe the remains of Lot's town are near the town of Mecca - Arabia, or, are they nearer to the town of Jerusalem?
  9. Why is the rock outcropping (which is attributed as “Maqam Ibrahim”) located inside the Temple at Jerusalem (as per the description given in 3:98) while the “Maqam Ibrahim” in Mecca is located outside the shrine/temple conflicting with the description given in the Scripture?
  10. Why was Mohammed adamant on facing the mighty Roman (Byzantium) army to the North. Did the Roman's hold something dear to make him take such a risk?
  11. Why did Abdel Malik renovate the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and send an army at the same time against Mecca to destroy the Kaaba with catapults?
  12. Why did Abdel Malik call people to pilgrim to Jerusalem and away from Mecca as per some historians?
  13. Why did the Caliph Suleyman  as late as 717 A.D. show confusion in whether it was Mecca or Jerusalem that the pilgrimage should be conducted to? (see source)
  14. Why does the prophecy associated with Israel’s 2nd rising speak of their defeat by the retaking of the ‘Temple’? Is Israel planning to occupy Mecca any time in the future? Or, is God speaking of His Temple in Jerusalem that they have already occupied during the 1967 war?
  15. Why is the ‘kaaba’ of Mecca located at the base of a valley where it is prone to flash floods? Is this in-line with the monotheistic purpose of providing a sanctuary for the pilgrims, or, is it related to the pagan practices of Arabia as found at other such sites in the Negev?
  16. Why do pilgrims in Mecca circle around the cube 7 times, as well as running between two hills 7 times? Does this seem to be an act associated with God’s system where He asks us to ‘think’ and ‘reason’, or, is it more associated with the empty pagan rituals of the time?

Answering these questions may lead you on the journey that needs to be taken about now...

Or, you may simply continue on the same path you found your parents and peers upon.

Worshippers giving their backs to the Temple/Shrine first raised by Abraham

 

Perhaps it is time to once again walk in the footsteps of our Patriarch Abraham by calling for the great pilgrimage and assembling mankind to honor the blessings of the Lord… 

“And call out to mankind with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure. So that they may witness benefits for themselves and recall God’s name in the appointed days over what He has provided for them of the animal livestock. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor. Then let them complete their duties and fulfill their vows, and let them partake at the ancient Sanctuary.” (Qur'an 22:27-29)

 


By Layth Al-Shaiban (laytth@hotmail.com)