Author Topic: Inheritance according to Qur?an  (Read 93603 times)

Noon waalqalami

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Inheritance according to Qur?an
« on: July 04, 2012, 11:45:51 AM »
Peace,

Admin please consider making this thread a sticky; perhaps I'll work on an online calculator.

Internet is filled with challenges to Qur'an inheritance: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkzLeE3GR0E

http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Contra/i001.html

No agreement with different traditional islamic schools as with this calculator:
http://www.islamicsoftware.org/irth/irth.html mother, 1 sister

Allow reversion: 2/5 mother, 3/5 sister
No reversion: 1/3 mother, 1/2 sister, Islamic Treasury: 1/6

Confusion in earliest traditions: Al-Muwatta' of Imam Malik (163 AH)
http://www.sunnipath.com/Library/Hadith/H0001P0027.aspx
    
27.1 Inheritance of Direct Descendants
A)  How much to give when they are exactly two daughters?
2)  They assume فوق over اثنتين two or three+ also means two?

There is confusion with meanings of إخوة ikh'watun and الكلالة al-kalālati

Quote
Book 011, Number 3937: , Abu Talha reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (Allah be please..
Abu Talha reported: 'Umar b. al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) delivered a sermon on Friday and made a mention of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he also made a mention of Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) and then said: I do not leave behind me any problem more difficult than that of Kalala. I did not refer to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) more repeatedly than in case of the problem of Kalala, and he (the Holy Prophet) never showed more annoyance to me than in regard to this problem, so much so that he struck my chest with his fingers and said: 'Umar, does the verse revealed in summer season, at the end of Sura al-Nisa' not suffice you? Hadrat 'Umar (then) said: If I live I would give such verdict about (Kalala) that everyone would be able to decide whether he reads the Qur'an or he does not.

When asked simple questions like which amount to give the sister: 1/6 (4:12) or 1/2 (4:176)?

They say 4:12 refers to uterine siblings/half sisters and brothers having the same mother different father to resolve the issue which brought about other confusion when total distribution is greater than the whole and fix was to use algebra to proportionately increase/decrease each amount by a common denominator called al-awl as in this example:

husband, mother, 3 uterine brothers, 2 full brothers
1/2 husband + 1/6 mother + 1/3 uterine brothers (4:12) = 0 full brothers (4:176)

The above was a supposed case during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab who ruled the 2 full brothers got nothing since there was nothing remaining to share. The full brothers argued that even if their father was a donkey or a stone cast into the sea and they had no paternal relationship, they still had the same and equal relationship with the deceased as the uterine brothers through the same mother. Umar reconsidered his ruling and allowed the full brothers to inherit equally with the uterine brothers in the shares thus:

1/2 husband + 1/6 mother + 1/3 brothers = 1

Which is incorrect according to Qur'an when there is a spouse siblings get nothing!
They resolve using algebra or al-Awl increase/decrease evenly all shares, example:

1 - 1/6x father - 1/6x mother - 1/4x husband - 1/2x daughter = 0
1 - 2/12x father - 2/12x mother - 3/12x husband - 6/12x daughters = 0
1 = 13/12x
12/13 = x use substitution...

1/6*12/13 = 2/13 father
1/6*12/13 = 2/13 mother
1/4*12/13 = 3/13 husband
2/4*12/13 = 6/13 daughter

Using http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebra one can wrongly "fix" surplus/shortfall any combinations.

One of the issues has to do with ولد walad child/son; it can also mean ولد waladun child/born or offspring.

http://www.studyquran.co.uk/PRLonline.htm Waw-Lam-Dal = to beget, give birth.

Here are the verses which if followed literally will give precise amounts without excess/shortfall.

4:11 يوصيكم directs you الله The God في in أولادكم your children للذكر to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine) فإن so if كن be نساء females فوق above اثنتين two (feminine) فلهن so for them ثلثا two thirds ما what ترك left وإن and if كانت she was واحدة one فلها so for her النصف the half ولأبويه and for their parents لكل to each واحد one منهما from them السدس the sixth مما from what ترك left إن if كان is له to person ولد walad/son فإن so if لم not يكن is له to person ولد waladun child/born وورثه and heirs أبواه person?s parents (if only parents) فلأمه so to his mother الثلث the third فإن so if كان is له to person إخوة ikh'watun brothers/siblings (at least one male present) فلأمه so to his mother السدس the sixth من from بعد after وصية a will يوصي have made بها in it أو or دين judgment آباؤكم your parents وأبناؤكم and your children لا not تدرون you know أيهم which of them أقرب closer لكم to you نفعا benefit فريضة obligation من from الله The God إن indeed الله The God كان is عليما Knowing حكيما Wise

4:12 ولكم and for you نصف half ما what ترك left أزواجكم your spouse?s إن if لم not يكن is لهن for them ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كان is لهن for them ولد walad/son فلكم so for you الربع the fourth مما from what تركن they left من from بعد after وصية a will يوصين they made بها in it أو or دين judgment ولهن and for them الربع the fourth مما from what تركتم you left إن if لم not يكن is لكم to you ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كان is لكم to you ولد walad/son فلهن so for them الثمن the eight مما from what تركتم you left من from بعد after وصية a will توصون you made بها in it أو or دين judgment وإن and if كان is رجل a man يورث inherited كلالة kalālatan (fatherless spouseless) أو or امرأة woman وله and has أخ a brother أو or أخت sister فلكل so for each واحد one منهما from them السدس the sixth فإن so if كانوا they were أكثر more من from ذلك that فه so they مشركاء partners في in الثلث the third من from بعد after وصية a will يوصى is recommended بها in it أو or دين judgment غير not مضار harmful وصية a will من from الله The God والله and The God عليم Knowing حليم Forbearing

4:176 يستفتونك they seek your ruling قل say الله The God يفتيكم gives you a ruling في in الكلالة al-kalālati (the fatherless spouseless) إن if امرؤ a person هلك died ليس is not له to that person ولد waladun child/born وله and has أخت sister فلها so for her نصف half ما what ترك left وهو and he يرثها inherits it إن if لم not يكن is لها to her ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كانتا were اثنتين two (feminine) فلهما so to them الثلثان the two thirds مما from what ترك left وإن and if كانوا they were إخوة ikh'watun brothers/siblings رجالا men/males ونساء and females فللذكر so to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine) يبين clarifies الله The God لكم to you أن lest تضلوا you stray والله and The God بكل in every شيء a thing عليم Knowing


Pay careful attention to see 4:11 kalala no son; 4:12 kalala with son; 4:176 the kalala no child/born.

Here are all combinations and obviously a sole inheritor gets the whole no need for distribution laws.

1 = mother
1 = father
1 = spouse
1 = daughter/s
1 = son/s
1 = sister/s
1 = brother/s

4:11 يوصيكم directs you الله The God في in أولادكم your children للذكر to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine)

son/s, daughter/s: distribute 2:1 ratio male to female

mother/father, son/s: 1/6 5/6
mother/father, 1 daughter : 1/2 1/2 no son, mother/father variable
mother/father, 2 daughters: 1/3 2/3 (2 daughters variable) all share equally
mother/father, 3 daughters: 1/3 2/3

mother, father : 1/3 2/3
mother, brother/s: 1/6 5/6

mother/father, husband: 1/2 1/2
mother/father, wife  : 3/4 1/4

father, sibling/s : 1 0 not kalala has father
husband/wife, sibling/s: 1 0 not kalala has spouse

husband/wife, 1 daughter : 1/2 1/2 not childless; no son; husband/wife variable
husband/wife, 2 daughters: 1/3 2/3
husband/wife, 3 daughters: 1/3 2/3

husband, son/s: 1/4 3/4

mother, father, husband: 1/4 1/4 1/2
mother, father,    wife : 3/8 3/8 1/4

mother, father, 1 daughter : 1/4 1/4 1/2
mother, father, 2 daughters: 1/4 1/4 1/2
mother, father, 3 daughters: 1/6 1/6 2/3

mother, father, son/s: 1/6 1/6 2/3

mother, husband/wife, 1 daughters: 1/4 1/4 1/2
mother, husband/wife, 2 daughters: 1/4 1/4 1/2
mother, husband/wife, 3 daughters: 1/6 1/6 2/3

mother, husband, son/s: 1/6 1/4 7/12
mother, wife,    son/s : 1/6 1/8 17/24

father, husband/wife, 1 daughter : 1/4 1/4 1/2
father, husband/wife, 2 daughters: 1/4 1/4 1/2
father, husband/wife, 3 daughters: 1/6 1/6 2/3

father, husband, son/s: 1/6 1/4 7/12
father, wife,    son/s : 1/6 1/8 17/24

father, daughter/s,  son/s : 1/6 5/6 children 2:1 ratio
husband, daughter/s, son/s: 1/4 3/4 children 2:1 ratio

mother, father, husband/wife, 1 daughter : 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/2
mother, father, husband/wife, 2 daughters: 1/5 1/5 1/5 2/5
mother, father, husband/wife, 3 daughters: 1/9 1/9 1/9 2/3
 
mother, father, husband, son/s: 1/6 1/6 1/4 5/12
mother, father, wife,    son/s : 1/6 1/6 1/8 13/24

mother, husband, daughter/s, son/s: 1/6 1/4 7/12  children 2:1 ratio
mother, wife, daughter/s,    son/s : 1/6 1/8 17/24 children 2:1 ratio

father, husband, daughter/s, son/s: 1/6 1/4 7/12  children 2:1 ratio
father, wife, daughter/s,    son/s: 1/6 1/8 17/24 children 2:1 ratio

mother, father, husband, daughter/s, son/s: 1/6 1/6 1/4 5/12  children 2:1 ratio
mother, father, wife, daughter/s,    son/s: 1/6 1/6 1/8 13/24 children 2:1 ratio

mother, father, daughter/s, son/s: 1/6 1/6 2/3 children 2:1 ratio


4:11 kalala fatherless spouseless no son (sibling/s variable)
mother, 1 daughter, sister/s : 1/4 1/2 1/4
mother, 1 daughter, brother/s: 1/6 1/2 1/3
mother, 1 daughter, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 1/2 1/3 siblings share equally

mother, 2 daughters, sister/s: 1/4 1/2, 1/4 each 1/4 1/4
mother, 2 daughters, brother/s: 1/6 5/6 daughters siblings share equally
mother, 2 daughters, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 5/6 daughters siblings share equally

mother, 3 daughters, sister/s : 1/6 2/3 1/6
mother, 3 daughters, brother/s: 1/6 2/3 1/6
mother, 3 daughters, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 2/3 1/3 siblings share equally

1 daughter, sister/s : 1/2 1/2
1 daughter, brother/s: 1/2 1/2
1 daughter, sister/s, brother/s: 1/2 1/2 siblings share equally
 
2 daughters, sister/s : daughters siblings share equally
2 daughters, brother/s: daughters siblings share equally
2 daughters, sister/s, brother/s: daughters siblings share equally

3 daughters, sister/s : 2/3, 2/9 each 1/3
3 daughters, brother/s: 2/3, 2/9 each 1/3
3 daughters, sister/s, brother/s: 2/3 1/3 siblings share equally


4:12 kalala fatherless spouseless has son (sibling/s fixed 1/6 or 1/3)
son/s, sister : 5/6 1/6
son/s, brother: 5/6 1/6
son/s, sisters: 5/6 1/3
son/s, brothers:5/6 1/3
son/s, sister/s, brother/s: 2/3 1/3 siblings share equally

daughter/s, son/s, sister : 5/6 children 2:1 ratio 1/6
daughter/s, son/s, brother: 5/6 children 2:1 ratio 1/6
daughter/s, son/s, sisters: 2/3 children 2:1 ratio 1/3
daughter/s, son/s, brothers:2/3 children 2:1 ratio 1/3
daughter/s, son/s, sister/s, brother/s: 2/3 children 2:1 ratio 1/3 siblings share equally

mother, son/s, sister : 1/6 2/3 1/6
mother, son/s, brother: 1/6 2/3 1/6
mother, son/s, sisters: 1/6 1/2 1/3
mother, son/s, brothers:1/6 1/2 1/3
mother, son/s, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 1/2 1/3 siblings share equally

mother, daughter/s, son/s, sister : 1/6 2/3 children 2:1 ratio 1/6
mother, daughter/s, son/s, brother: 1/6 2/3 children 2:1 ratio 1/6
mother, daughter/s, son/s, sisters: 1/6 1/2 children 2:1 ratio 1/3
mother, daughter/s, son/s, brothers:1/6 1/2 children 2:1 ratio 1/3
mother, daughter/s, son/s, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 1/2 children 2:1 ratio 1/3 siblings share equally


4:176 kalala fatherless spouseless no child/born
sister/s, brother/s: 2:1 ratio male to female

mother, sister/s, brother/s: 1/6 5/6 siblings 2:1 ratio

mother, 1 sister : 1/2 1/2
mother, 2 sisters: 1/3 2/3
mother, 3 sisters: 1/4 3/4 unstated/variable distribute equally

4:176... يبين clarifies الله The God لكم to you أن lest تضلوا you stray والله and The God بكل in every شيء a thing عليم Knowing

mirjamnur

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #1 on: July 05, 2012, 02:47:05 AM »

Noon waalqalami

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #2 on: July 05, 2012, 08:39:19 AM »
Salam
check out this link:
http://quransmessage.com/articles/inheritance%20FM3.htm

Peace mirjamnur,

Have you tested a few examples using the above site?
e.g.: woman leaves $1,000: husband and 3 daughters

http://quransmessage.com/articles/inheritance%20FM3.htm

Is the deceased a male = No
Is there a spouse, parents or any descents = Yes
Are parents still alive = No
Is there a husband = Yes
Are there any children = Yes (husband receives 1/4)

Are there only daughters = Yes
Is there only one daughter = No (daughters share from 2/3)

1/4 + 2/3 = 11/12, who gets remaining 1/12 or $1000 x 1/12 = $83.33?


Let's also try woman leaves $1,000: husband, 3 daughters, mother, father

1/4 husband   $250
2/3 daughters $1000 x 2/3 = $666.67
1/6 mother    $1000 x 1/6 = $166.67
1/6 father    $1000 x 1/6 = $166.67

= 1 + 1/4 or $1,250 too much or short $250!

Do you now see the problem with all these sites and translations?

mirjamnur

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #3 on: July 05, 2012, 03:22:16 PM »
Salam noon waalqalami
Caught! i didn't ... yes, and I see your problem. and I will, so God will,  now study the matter .i will post, if I could draw any new conclusions.
Thank you for your input the topic is very important -r better if we leave nothing behind:  no dispute ... ;D
(but please make contact with the author from the site and look , what he will answer you.)
peace :)

mirjamnur

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #4 on: July 06, 2012, 02:58:42 AM »
Peace mirjamnur,

Have you tested a few examples using the above site?
e.g.: woman leaves $1,000: husband and 3 daughters

http://quransmessage.com/articles/inheritance%20FM3.htm

Is the deceased a male = No
Is there a spouse, parents or any descents = Yes
Are parents still alive = No
Is there a husband = Yes
Are there any children = Yes (husband receives 1/4)

Are there only daughters = Yes
Is there only one daughter = No (daughters share from 2/3)

1/4 + 2/3 = 11/12, who gets remaining 1/12 or $1000 x 1/12 = $83.33?


Let's also try woman leaves $1,000: husband, 3 daughters, mother, father

1/4 husband   $250
2/3 daughters $1000 x 2/3 = $666.67
1/6 mother    $1000 x 1/6 = $166.67
1/6 father    $1000 x 1/6 = $166.67

= 1 + 1/4 or $1,250 too much or short $250!

Do you now see the problem with all these sites and translations?

e.g.: woman leaves $1,000: husband and 3 daughters

husband 1/4= 3/12
parents 1/6=2./12
daughters =7/12= 21/36 everyone 7/36


when she leaves husband and 2 daughters and 1 son
husband 1/4
parents 1/6
daughters and son 7/12 =28/48
daugther 1= 7/48
daughter 2=7/48
son 14/48

when she leaves husband and 3 daughters and one son
husband 1/4=3/12 (250$)
parents 1/6= 2/12 (166.66$) the rest will be 7/12
three daughters and the son together 7/12= 21/36 
daughters 2/3= 14/36
son= 1/3= 7/36

Salam what you think about? :peace:


Pleiades

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #5 on: July 06, 2012, 06:48:41 AM »
Salam
check out this link:
http://quransmessage.com/articles/inheritance%20FM3.htm
peace :)

Peace Mirjumanur - Thanks for the link. I think it is an honest effort. To be fair to the author of the site, he does seem to recognise that there is room for discussion and ain't a case of my way or the highway type presentation. 

I noted the opening sentence on the top of the diagram.

"The illustration below attempts to best capture the inheritance directives in the Quran. It is left for the reader to consult the verses mentioned and scrutinise them with a view to understand the topic deeply. The illustration merely intends to provide an overview and a cue for further study"


Inheritance is a really important and really involved topic. I reckon it always has been. I look forward to it being discussed here and agree with Noon waalqalami that it should be considered as a sticky! I'd like to work out my own inheritance properly according to the Quran! Peace

Noon waalqalami

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #6 on: July 06, 2012, 09:00:45 AM »
e.g.: woman leaves $1,000: husband and 3 daughters

husband 1/4= 3/12
parents 1/6=2./12
daughters =7/12= 21/36 everyone 7/36

Peace mirjamnur,

You gave the 3 daughters 7/12 and did not follow the instructions in Qur'an?

4:11 فإن so if كن be نساء females فوق above اثنتين two (feminine) فلهن so for them ثلثا two thirds

2/3 = 2/9 x 3 daughters
1/3 = 1/9 husband + 2/9 parents (1/9 mother + 1/9 father)

4:11 to parents 1/6 if walad/son = false
4:12 to husband 1/2 if no child/born = false; 1/4  if walad/son = false

Therefore, in this case, husband and parents are unstated or variable who share remaining 1/3 equally.

when she leaves husband and 2 daughters and 1 son
husband 1/4
parents 1/6
daughters and son 7/12 =28/48
daugther 1= 7/48
daughter 2=7/48
son 14/48

4:11 يوصيكم directs you الله The God في in أولادكم your children للذكر to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine)
4:11 ولأبويه and for their parents لكل to each واحد one منهما from them السدس the sixth مما from what ترك left إن if كان is له to person ولد walad/son
4:12 فإن so if كان is لهن for them ولد walad/son فلكم so for you الربع the fourth


1/4 or 3/12 husband
1/3 or 4/12 parents = 1/6 mother + 1/6 father
......... 5/12 children = 5/24 son + 5/24 daughters (5/48 x 2 daughters); if children mixed 2:1 ratio male to female

when she leaves husband and 3 daughters and one son
husband 1/4=3/12 (250$)
parents 1/6= 2/12 (166.66$) the rest will be 7/12
three daughters and the son together 7/12= 21/36 
daughters 2/3= 14/36
son= 1/3= 7/36

See above 1/4 husband; 1/3 parents (1/6 each); 5/12 children = 2/12 son + 3/12 three daughters, 1/12 each

Salam what you think about?

Follow exactly as stated in Qur'an and you'll be fine; perhaps be a bit more neat/orderly as well.  :)

Inheritance is a really important and really involved topic. I reckon it always has been. I look forward to it being discussed here and agree with Noon waalqalami that it should be considered as a sticky! I'd like to work out my own inheritance properly according to the Quran! Peace

Peace Pleiades,

Yes this topic should be a sticky; it teaches logic, how to read Qur'an using cross-reference and context to extrapolate certain words and to take the best non-contradicting meaning.

Noon waalqalami

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #7 on: July 07, 2012, 08:36:20 AM »
Peace,

Most reciters have the correct sequence for verse 4:11 walad/son followed by waladun child/born.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4tyaki83aY
Scroll to beginning of verse 4:11 at 04:29 minute

4:12 (05:45 minute) they have incorrect and reversed walad/son followed by waladaun child/born.

The above is an obvious contradiction; the husband cannot receive both 1/2 and 1/4!

1/2 husband if no son
1/4 husband if child/born

If only daughters (no son = true) 1/2 husband
If only daughters (if child  = true) 1/4 husband

4:176 1:12:37 minute, most have 1st correct if no waladun child/born, 2nd is incorrect if no walad/son.

mirjamnur

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #8 on: July 07, 2012, 09:58:09 AM »
Salam

4:11 يوصيكم directs you الله The God في in أولادكم your children للذكر to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine) فإن so if كن be نساء females فوق above اثنتين two (feminine) فلهن so for them ثلثا two thirds ما what ترك left وإن and if كانت she was واحدة one فلها so for her النصف the half ولأبويه and for their parents لكل to each واحد one منهما from them السدس the sixth مما from what ترك left إن if كان is له to person ولد walad/son فإن so if لم not يكن is له to person ولد waladun child/born وورثه and heirs أبواه person?s parents (if only parents) فلأمه so to his mother الثلث the third فإن so if كان is له to person إخوة ikh'watun brothers/siblings (at least one male present) فلأمه so to his mother السدس the sixth من from بعد after وصية a will يوصي have made بها in it أو or دين judgment آباؤكم your parents وأبناؤكم and your children لا not تدرون you know أيهم which of them أقرب closer لكم to you نفعا benefit فريضة obligation من from الله The God إن indeed الله The God كان is عليما Knowing حكيما Wise

4:12 ولكم and for you نصف half ما what ترك left أزواجكم your spouse?s إن if لم not يكن is لهن for them ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كان is لهن for them ولد walad/son فلكم so for you الربع the fourth مما from what تركن they left من from بعد after وصية a will يوصين they made بها in it أو or دين judgment ولهن and for them الربع the fourth مما from what تركتم you left إن if لم not يكن is لكم to you ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كان is لكم to you ولد walad/son فلهن so for them الثمن the eight مما from what تركتم you left من from بعد after وصية a will توصون you made بها in it أو or دين judgment وإن and if كان is رجل a man يورث inherited كلالة kalālatan (fatherless spouseless) أو or امرأة woman وله and has أخ a brother أو or أخت sister فلكل so for each واحد one منهما from them السدس the sixth فإن so if كانوا they were أكثر more من from ذلك that فه so they مشركاء partners في in الثلث the third من from بعد after وصية a will يوصى is recommended بها in it أو or دين judgment غير not مضار harmful وصية a will من from الله The God والله and The God عليم Knowing حليم Forbearing

Quote
You gave the 3 daughters 7/12 and did not follow the instructions in Qur'an?

4:11 فإن so if كن be نساء females فوق above اثنتين two (feminine) فلهن so for them ثلثا two thirds

4:11 يوصيكم directs you الله The God في in أولادكم your children للذكر to the male مثل like حظ share الأنثيين the two (feminine) فإن so if كن be نساء females فوق above اثنتين two (feminine) فلهن so for them ثلثا two thirds ما what ترك left وإن and if كانت she was واحدة one فلها so for her النصف the half ولأبويه

Because i understand: normal case:  male and female =male double from female, when more then two for them 2/3
abnormal ::): only female they become all= the rest all the 7/12

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4:11 to parents 1/6 if walad/son = false
yes i see, to each from them 1/6 that will be 2/6 thats right? or 4/6?

4.12...so if كان is لهن for them ولد walad/son فلكم so for you الربع the fourth مما from what تركن they left
why you say
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1/4  if walad/son = false
? walad here means not children? why you translate it one time with son and other time with children?

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Follow exactly as stated in Qur'an and you'll be fine; perhaps be a bit more neat/orderly as well. 
isA i will try it  ;)
the best solution: to give in the lifetime much sadaqa , then we will not have anything to study ;D
peace

Noon waalqalami

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Re: Inheritance according to Qur?an
« Reply #9 on: July 07, 2012, 03:55:24 PM »
Peace mirjamnur,

why you say ? walad here means not children? why you translate it one time with son and other time with children?

4:12 ولكم and for you نصف half ما what ترك left أزواجكم your spouse?s إن if لم not يكن is لهن for them ولد waladun child/born فإن so if كان is لهن for them ولد walad/son فلكم so for you الربع the fourth

The above is the only non-contradicting meaning. Example case: husband, 3 daughters

These are all the possibilities ...

4:12 1/2 if no son (true), 1/4 if child (true): both true its not known what to give husband 1/2 or 1/4?
4:12 1/2 if no son (true), 1/4 if son   (false): 1/2 husband + 2/3 daughters = 1 + 1/6 or 1/6 shortfall?

4:12 1/2 if no child (false), 1/4 if child (true): 1/4 husband + 2/3 daughters = 11/12 or 1/12 excess?
4:12 1/2 if no child (false), 1/4 if son  (false): both false, husband unstated/variable gets remainder.

1 - 2/3 (2/9 x 3 daughters) = 1/3 husband