: Basic meaning of this root is to fill up and to express:* * Ibn Faaris says it has different basic meanings; one of which is to be filled and abundant: shakaratin naaqah: the camel’s teats became full of milk: almishkaar: a mammal which may have little fodder but still her teats are full of milk: zarratun shakra: udder full of milk: as shikrah: a (She) camel whose udder is full of milk***.
Shaakiraatish shajarah: branches sprouts on tree trunk: ishtakaratis sama-u: it rains cats and dogs: ishtakaral harru wal bard: winter and summer were brimful: shakara fulan: that man was greatly benevolent and distributes alms a lot to people
TAJUL UROOS says that shukr; from human side, it is compliance and the performance of obligatory duties (farz) with the expression of gratitude. God’s full response towards shukr means to confer much more in return for a little action: for example if a person, in his destitute, extend a little help to someone, then his modest sacrifice will be greater than a person who give alms after satisfying his own needs. It is called ample reward for a meager action in the way of God.
If we keep the basic meaning of ‘shukr’ before us then we can easily comprehend the meaning of ‘sa-ee mushkoor’ such an effort which fetches plentiful results: (i.e. more than the effort warranted): so complete like the teats of a goat are full of milk. ‘shaakir’(fa-inna All[a]ha sh[a]kirun AAaleem(un) 2:158): shaakir God is one who compose from one’s effort bountiful results. The word ‘Khusr’ is an antonym to ‘shukr’ that has been used for the efforts gone waste: 39:65, 66 (عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ) a man’s efforts which produce upright and excellent results is also termed ‘shakoor’: 14:5(إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ )Therefore according to the tense, shakoor has more aggrandizement than shaakir.
Since ‘shukr’ also means to highlight or,to make evident, and the word ‘kufr’ means,to hide reality willfully or ignorantly, has been used as antonym in this verse 14:7 (وَلَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذَابِي لَشَدِي). In Surah Baqarah: 2:154 (وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ) it means always keep God given blessings uncovered or available so that the human race can benefit from it: do not hide them or cover them.
Among the first of God given endowments are the potentialities and capabilities which a human being possesses: the development of these capacities, exploration of divine potential and there manifestation in human disposition is also ‘shukr’. These can grow only by righteous deeds : therefore, virtuousness and actions towards the divine direction culminate the cause for ‘shukr’ of God’s benevolence: Surah Ahqaaf verse 46:15 relates this very fact: when it is said that you should call for: (رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ ) O, my Nurturer, give me the capability of thanking you (to thank you (‘shukr’) for your benevolence: that is, I may do such righteous deeds which replicate and reflect in myself : at another place, it is said: Mun yashkur fa innama yashkuru li-nafsehi wa mun kafara fa innal laha ghaniyyun hameed: 31:12 he who covers up or hides God’s munificence (i.e. he hides or does not disclose) , does God no harm but he harm himself. One, who uncovers them, develops his own capabilities: God in His personality rightly deserve eulogy, all praises and admirations.
To uncover God’s gifts or to disclose them means to utilize them as God has commanded: that is, they should be kept available for the nourishment of humanity at large: this fact has been highlighted with the help of an exmaple: a community of a dwelling or a city, had plentiful means of sustenance: but fakafarat bi-anami lillah: 16:112 they began to hide from fellow humans God’s affluence. Resultantly faced retribution, approach gradually, of hunger and fear: God’s prophets were sent to them but they rejected them: thus momineen have been warned to refrain from such attitude:
فَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّـهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّـهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ :16:114 keep God’s gifts uncovered: inn kuntum iyyahu
ta’budoon: 16:114 if you follow His laws only, then obviously you will keep open whatever God has given you: and the ‘kufr’ of those gifts means to hide them (according to your self- made laws) : bima kaanu yasna-oon: 16:112 this in surah Airaaf has been made explicit as : ‘shaakireen’ are those who do not follow the way of the Iblees and are do not fall into his trap: 7:17 Thumma la[a]tiyannahum min bayni aydeehim wamin khalfihim waAAan aym[a]nihim waAAan sham[a]-ilihim wal[a] tajidu aktharahum sh[a]kireen(a) "Then will I(Iblees) assault them from before them and behind them, from their right and their left: Nor wilt thou find, in most of them, gratitude (for thy mercies)."
Surah Baqarah says about the Bani Israeel: 2:56Thumma baAAathn[a]kum min baAAdi mawtikum laAAallakum tashkuroon(a) We gave you life after death so that you pay “thanks’; this makes it clear that nations regain life or are resurrected after death so that they can develop their latent abilities: those nations which do not do so are not ‘alive’; nor can they exist.
Therefore it’s elucidated above that:
1) Human efforts to be mashkoor mean that they yield the best plentiful consequences. They have to be fruit-bearing appreciably.
2) “Sukar” from Man denotes that he should wide open the blessings of God for humanity.
a) that he makes his latent potentialities fully evident or develops them;
b) Keep the means of nourishment spread in the universe and hold out to foster mankind and not to conceal them.
3) It can be attained that Man uprightly and firmly obey God’s laws and observe His commandments and live his life accordingly. It will be thankfulness from human being.
4) ‘shukr’ from God refer to that He fully reward the actions taken by his servant in the right direction to achieve his goal. This is the specific characteristic of God’s eternal laws that if one observe and follow accordingly, consequently bring forth pleasant plentiful results of one’s efforts. Surah Dhahar says: Inn[a] hadayn[a]hu a(l)ssabeela imm[a] sh[a]kiran wa-imm[a] kafoor[a](n) 76:3
We have guided human being to right path trough Divine Instructions (Wahi). Now it’s his own will to adopt it or reject it: here Shukar refer to accept and appreciate very high valued divine instructions.
In Surah Nisa 4:147 in shakartum wa[a]mantum wak[a]na All[a]hu sh[a]kiran AAaleem[a](n) if you value this guidance then believe (have faith or eeman): In 34:13Shakur is used in the sense of Shaakir. Sahib e Ghareeb ul Quran ( Mirza. Abu ul fazal) writes that: it means, to derive benefit from the sources employed to have affluence. For example in Surah Saba says: iAAmaloo [a]la d[a]wooda shukran. O, progeny of Dawood (as), you should explore and utlize the resources (according to the laws of God ) to attain His gracious benevolence and be Shaakir.
Ibn Faaris said, in the root meanings of Al- Shukar; it is included that: be contended on meager sources and small things. It also: farsa shakoor said to be a horse which is obese but a little fodder is enough for him: our dormant potentialities and capabilities, when fully explored and nourished, automatically bring profuse results even with a very little external support.