Here, is as announced for the day before yesterday, a collection of ayas related to what we have been discussing. More typically, may be I should have said "mañana".
I have collected all those ayas where the verb faDDala
appears, and highlighted it within the sentence and transliterated the highlighted parts. It appears some times with the expression ba3D only
and many times with the expression ba3D... ba3Din.
This ba3D... ba3Din, appears in Qur'an many more times with other prepositions and other verbs and it would be worthwhile making also a gathering of them, but since there was particular concern because of the faDDala value, for the sake of thoroughness, I have proceeded with that.
Here are the ayas:
Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all other (for My Message). faDDaltukum 3ala al3alamin
يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
O Children of Israel! call to mind the special favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My Message) faDDaltukum 3ala al3alamin
يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
Those messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: To one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs), and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Tilka alrusul faDDalna ba3dahum 3ala ba3Din minhum man kallama Allahu wa rafa3a ba3Dahum darajaat...
تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ
And in no wise covet those things in which Allah Hath bestowed His gifts More freely on some of you than on others: To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah hath full knowledge of all things. ma faDDala Allahu bihi ba3Dakum 3ala ba3Din
وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّـهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard. bima faDDala Allahu ba3Dahum 3ala ba3Din
الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّـهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا
Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath Allah promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward... faDDala Allahu al mujahidin bi amwalihim wa anfusihim 3ala alqa3idin darajatun...wa faDDala Allahu ....
لَّا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
And Isma'il and Elisha, and Jonas, and Lot: and to all We gave favour above the nations: faDDalna 3ala al 3alamin
وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِي
He said: "Shall I seek for you a god other than the (true) Allah, when it is Allah Who hath endowed you with gifts above the nations?" wa huwa faDDalacum 3ala al 3alamin
قَالَ أَغَيْرَ اللَّـهِ أَبْغِيكُمْ إِلَـٰهًا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِي
And in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighbouring, and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn, and palm trees - growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who understand! we nufaDDilu ba3Daha 3ala ba3Dinn fil akli
وَفِي الْأَرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَاوِرَاتٌ وَجَنَّاتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَانٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَانٍ يُسْقَىٰ بِمَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الْأُكُلِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
Allah has bestowed His gifts of sustenance more freely on some of you than on others: those more favoured are not going to throw back their gifts to those whom their right hands possess, so as to be equal in that respect. Will they then deny the favours of Allah? Wa Allahu faDDala ba3Dacum 3ala ba3Din firrizq mamalakaat aymanuhum
وَاللَّـهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الرِّزْقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِينَ فُضِّلُوا بِرَادِّي رِزْقِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ ۚ أَفَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّـهِ يَجْحَدُونَ
See how We have bestowed more on some than on others; but verily the Hereafter is more in rank and gradation and more in excellence. faDDalna ba3Dahum 3ala ba3Dinn
انظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَلْآخِرَةُ أَكْبَرُ دَرَجَاتٍ وَأَكْبَرُ تَفْضِيلًا
And it is your Lord that knoweth best all beings that are in the heavens and on earth: We did bestow on some prophets more (and other) gifts than on others: and We gave to David (the gift of) the Psalms. Wa laqad faDDalna ba3Da annibiyyina 3ala ba3Din
وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا ﴿٥٥﴾ قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُم مِّن دُونِهِ
We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation. wa faDDalnahum 3ala katheer mimman khalaqna tafDeela
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا
We gave (in the past) knowledge to David and Solomon: And they both said: "Praise be to Allah, Who has favoured us above many of his servants who believe!"alladhi faDDalna 3ala katheeri mmin 3ibaadihi al muminin.
وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ عِلْمًا ۖ وَقَالَا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي فَضَّلَنَا عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّنْ عِبَادِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
We did aforetime grant to the Children of Israel the Book the Power of Command, and Prophethood; We gave them, for Sustenance, things good and pure; and We favoured them above the nations. wa faDDalnahum 3ala al 3alamin
وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
The ayas in which the clause ba3D... ba3Din does not come up
are 2.47, 2.122, 4.95, 6.86, 7.140, 17.70, 27.15 and 4.16.All of them except one talk about the prophes or the people who followed them with the import that their are distinguished above the 3alamin, or over many other creatures, but does not say ay particulsr collective or persons over which they are distinguished.
The exception is 4.95, where a group clearly defined is distinguished over a group equally clearly defined: that is the mujahiden over the qa3idin. These two groups are distinguished not by any inherent quality but by what they do or do not do. Which would also be the case with the prophets and their followers, but it is not so clearly given.
If we go to the ayas where the clause ba3D... ba3D appears, there are two types,
a) 2.253, 13.4, 17.21 17.55, 4.32, 16.71, the faDDala operates within a single group or set, one over the other. No indication is given of any particular individual or several of them. Rather in the ones dealing about the prophets (2.253, 17.55) it signals different gifts given to individual ones, no attempt and totality or detailed enumeration or attribution is made, and no names or description is given, except those few explicited, to allow anybody to distinguish between the Prophetsso as to arrive to conclude that in total summ any one in particular is less or more giftedor giving any indication in fact that there would be anybody not gifted in some aspect over others who might be gifted in some other aspects but not in the same, whereas the indication given in the explicit mention of some shows that they were gifted differenty, some with something some with something other.
17.21 makes also clear that the gifts are always related to what you do with what you have. Again no natural preference by birth or clsassification for any over anybody else, but what ech does, gives his or her preference. Which may further enlighten as to those "bima" en 4.32.
In 4.32. no mark or indication is given that anybody in particular should always be the more gifted and others would never be gifted nor that anybody would have no gifts at all, and real life shows that all people in general have something or other which others might covet, and that anybody, if giving in to coevetousness, would find something to covet in anyone.
The case in 16.71 is interesting because it would seem that within a group some would indeed be wealthier than others, and that amongst those other, there would be the MMA, which might be a hint also as to one of the traits that would qualify anybody as MMA.
What is interesting in this group is that even if we said: ok let us say that it is not mutual, that some covet and some different ones, are coveted, that some prophets are aboslutely more gifted and other absolutely less gifted, the point is we have no way to know which ones, it would always be left to anybody's particular feeling or opinion, so that the end result would be that we have no way of pointing unequivocally to anybody, except for the case of 16.71 where, apparently, the unmistakable trait would be to have enough wealth, enough at least to be able to git it to some MMA. This in itself might be an indication in itself. Faddala seems to be mentioned always in connection with spiritual values or gits. So may be what the faddala indicated here is that if you give of your gifts, then you have been really the objet of the faDDala, if not...
b) two groups or sets are considered.
It would be interesting to explore the whole Qur'an for the clause in any other case where faDDala is not involved to see the usage where the "preference" preconception does not cloud the vision. Here I will stick to the faddala. In this case we have only one aya, our famous
It would be worthwhile comparing this to 4.95, where also there are two elements, the mujahidin and the qa3idin, and also is there the verb faddala, the difference is that there is not the clause ba3D... ba3Din. So there is a way to say that somebody is favoured over somebody else without resourcing to the ba3D... ba3Din clause.
However that is not what wakas said, what wakas was saying is that it is comparing not riyal to nisaa' but some of the riyal, to some of the same riyal or some also of the nisaa'. But that sounds arbitrary, what has to do with women than some men are preferred to others? If they owe something to the nisaa', surely these have something to do with it, or? And why some othe riyal owe it and some others not? Adn what has that to do with the salihaat qanitaat...?
What the Qur'an would be saying is that those who support the nisaa' are those who support the nisaa'. No quarrel with that fact, but why write this aya to state the obvious?
The fact is that the qawwamun is tied to two conditions: that they do have that with which they were gifted relatively to the nisaa', and that they put their wealth in for that. But to say that some of the riyal are qawwamun is not the same as to say that the rijal should be qawwamun, that ist, the it is something that is required of them in order to make their gifts into real spiritual values and earn the akhira. Just as the Hafidhaat lilghaib are el salihaat, qanitaat.
We have the second previous aya to this, which we have also considered in this message that says
"And in no wise covet those things in which Allah Hath bestowed His gifts More freely on some of you than on others: To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah hath full knowledge of all things."
Here in 4.34 what is hinted at in 4.32, respective gifts, is made explicit concerning riyal and nisaa'. By the way, in 4.33, there is mention of of "alladhina 3aqadat aymanukum, reminiscent of those MMA. Worthwhile pointing out that neither in 4.32 nor in 4.34 is spoken about wives and husbands, but about riyal and nisaa'.
Much has been said about wife and husband being partners and all that, but may be we are missing some conscience that in a larger scale, in total social scale women and men are partners, the basic partnership.